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3.3 Integration

- The first characteristic of every signal is chemical shift.
- The number of protons gives rise to the signal.
- The area under each signal is calculated by a computer and displayed as a numerical value under the signal.

- When compared to each other, these numbers have no meaning.

- A signal with an integration of 1.5 involves one and a half times as many protons as a signal with an integration of 1.
- If you want to arrive at whole numbers, you have to divide the numbers by two and get the same ratio in whole numbers.

- The signal at 2.4 ppm is equivalent to 2 equivalent protons, and the signal at 2.1 ppm is equivalent to 3 equivalent protons.

- The area under the signal is represented by the height of the step curves.
- A comparison of the heights of the four step curves shows a ratio of 2 to 3.

- The numbers are only relative when interpreting integration values.

- Butane has two different types of protons and will produce two different signals.
- The methylene groups give two signals.
- A computer analyzes the area under each signal and provides numbers that allow us to calculate a ratio.
- The exact number of protons is not indicated by this ratio.

- The exact numbers are 4 and 6 for the methylene groups.
- The exact number of protons giving rise to each signal can be determined by analyzing the NMR spectrum of an unknown compound.

- In order to give a total of 10 protons, the ratio of 2 : 3 must correspond with 4 protons and 6 protons.

- Symmetry can play an important role when considering integration values.

- The two methylene groups are equivalent to each other, and the two methyl groups are also equivalent to each other.
- The relative integration values of the two signals are 2 and 3.
- The values 2 and 3 are relative numbers.
- They represent 4 and 6 protons.
- The total of 10 protons in the compound can be determined by inspecting the formula.

- There is a compound with the formula C H O.

- There are three signals in the spectrum.
- Take the relative integration values and compare them to each other.

- Relative numbers are what this gives a ratio of.
- The number of protons in a compound is determined by the number of protons in the formula.
- The numbers 1 : 3 : 6 are the exact values.
- The values are sometimes expressed in the following way.

- There is a compound with the formula C H O.

- There is a compound with the formula C H O.

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