We discussed at the end of Chapter 1 how comparative politics is hampered by problems of data and theory that are often unable to explain human behavior.
Comparative politics has suffered from scholars understanding too few cases in the past.
The idea of comparative politics is open to question if globalization is transforming domestic politics.
We can argue that "globalized" questions need not come at the expense of comparative politics, but the question remains whether scholars of political science are missing the big questions that lie in the space between comparative politics and international relations.
We don't have to choose between the areas of research listed in the questions.
Comparative politics as it is structured now may not be focused on important global puzzles and institutions.
In this chapter, we look at the concept of globalization and its potential impact on both comparative politics and the ongoing struggle over the balance of freedom and equality.
We will define globalization and figure out how to measure it.
We will look at the possible effects of globalization on political, economic, and societal institutions at the domestic level.
Some questions will be asked about the progress of globalization, whether it is fundamentally new, profound, and inevitable.
The old dilemma of balancing freedom and equality may change as a result of globalization.
We could argue that we've lived in a globalized world for thousands of years.
Even as early humans dispersed around the world tens of thousands of years ago, they maintained and developed long distance connections with one another through migration.
Through the dissemination of knowledge and innovations, these contacts helped spur development.
It is thought that the technology of written language was only created in the Americas, Asia and the Middle East.
The idea of writing things down spread to other communities as empires stretched from Asia to Europe.
Even more far flung connections were forged between people who were unaware of each other's existence.
We don't simply mean international con tacts and interaction, which have existed for tens of thousands of years, when we talk about globalization.
According to the political scientists Robert O. Keohane and Joseph S. Nye Jr., one important distinction between globalization and these earlier ties is that many of these past relationships were relatively "thin."
These connections did not directly affect large numbers of people.
Globalization can be seen as a process by which global connections grow more and more thick, creating an extensive and intensive web of relationships between many people across vast distances.
In the first twenty years of the 21st century, people are not distantly connected by overland routes plied by traders, diplomats, and missionaries; they are directly participating in a vast and complex international network through travel, communication, business, and education.
Globalization is a system in which human beings are no longer part of isolated communities that are linked through narrow channels of diplomatic relations or trade.
Entire societies are connected to global affairs.
Globalization has a number of potential implications for comparative politics.
Globalization breaks down the distinction between international relations and domestic politics due to the fact that many aspects of domestic politics are subject to global forces.
Climate change is linked to debates over environmental policy, struggles over inequality are framed by concerns about trade, offshore outsourcing, and immigration, and health care is influenced by the threat of Pandemics.
Political isolation becomes difficult or impossible because of this.
In the other direction, globalization can be used to "Inter nationalize" domestic issues and events.
The speed of the world makes these connections even stronger.
It used to take years or centuries for technological change to spread from region to region, but now a new piece of software or video can be downloaded or viewed at the same time everywhere.
The Internet allows the rapid dissemination of news and information from all over the world.
What happens to someone in one place immediately affects others around the world, as the world seems to live in the same moment.
Globalization is a process that creates intensive and extensive interna tional connections, changing traditional relationships of time and space.
These are big questions that have not found much consensus.
We can think about the nature of institutions in a globalizing world.
Globalization is a process that creates more extensive and intensive connections across the globe.
The institutions of economics, politics, and society can be changed by these changes.
At the beginning of the textbook, we talked about institutions being a key reference point for modern life.
Patterns of activity that are valued for their own sake are institutions.
The modern world is codified by them.
State, culture, property, and markets establish borders, set boundaries, and allocate authority, rights, and responsibilities.
They establish local identity and control by establishing a particular state, religion, or set of cultural values that hold sway over the land and people here.
Space and time are measured through institutions.
Is this still true in the future?
Domestic institutions may not be the most important actors in people's lives in the future.
Long- standing institutions like states, cultures, national identities, and political- economic systems now face a range of international forces and organizations that transform, challenge, or threaten their traditional roles.
Let's look at some of the reasons why this might be the case.