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Chapter 76: The Doppler Effect
Everyone has heard a siren.
The change in position of the siren relative to the hearer causes a change in the sound.
As the siren approaches, the pitch is increased while the pitch is decreased.
The phenomenon is called the Doppler effect.
Let's say the source is moving toward point A.
The circular waves will not be in a straight line for each period of time.
The spacing between the two waves will be reduced by an amount equal to the distance traveled by the source.
At point A there is an apparent increase in Frequency, while at point B there is an apparent decrease in Frequency.
The relative motion between the source of the wave and the receiver is what causes this shift.
A combination of source and observer movement can be used to accomplish this.
The received Frequency will be higher if the two are near each other.
The received Frequency will be lower when the two are further apart.
The relative velocities of the two are related to the amount of the shift in frequencies.
There are mechanical waves in a medium.
A pulse is a single event.
The direction of propagation is what determines whether a pulse or wave is transverse.
If the waves are parallel to the direction of motion, they are longitudinal.
Waves are only able to transmit energy.
Waves can be added together with the principle of superposition states.
The maximum displacement of a wave is called the amplitude.
The number of cycles per second is the Frequency of a Wave.
The period of a wave is the amount of time it takes to complete one cycle.
Particles in a medium that show the same state of motion at the same time are said to be in phase.
The wavelength is the distance between two points in a wave.
Waves are equal to the product of the frequencies.
A standing wave is a wave in which incident and reflected waves combine to produce a wave that appears to be standing in one place.
There are points where there is no displacement.
Every half-wavelength, there are Nodes.
The maximum energy transfer from one body to another is known as resonance.
A difference in media at a boundary causes the wave to return in the opposite direction.
The bending of a wave as it enters a new medium at an oblique angle has different propagation speed.
Diffraction is the bending of waves around obstacles in a given medium or the outward speed as the wave passes through small openings.
Constructive or destructive interference can be produced by the superposition of two waves of the same phase.
Sound is a mechanical wave.
There is an apparent increase in frequencies when a source is moving toward an observer.
There is an apparent decrease in frequencies if the relative motion is away from the source.
Remembering the basic physical concepts is needed to solve wave motion problems.
The only motion in the medium will be up and down.
If you see points labeled as beads on a wire, you must resist the temptation.
Waves will first go up and then go down as they approach a point.
The points are either going up or going down at the same time.
Sound waves travel through a medium and their speed is determined by the structure of the matter involved.
The speed of sound increases with the temperature.
When two frequencies are heard at the same time, sound wave interference occurs.
A stretched string has a length of 1.5 m and a mass of 0.25 kg.
A stretched string is vibrated in such a way that a wave appears.
The tuning forks are vibrating.
There are two forks with different frequencies, one with a Frequency of 256 and the other with a Frequency of 280.
A sound wave can take 3 s to reach a receiver.
When neighbors play their stereos too loud, apartment dwellers are used to hearing the "boom-boom" sound of bass tones.
T is 4.2 N if you use the given information and solve for tension.
The wavelength of l is 1.14 m.
Waves are perceived as being louder in sound.
T is 48,000 N.
When crossing a bridge, people should not march in unison because it can lead to destructive large amplitudes.
The bass tones in the apartment building walls are so low that they sound like "boom-boom", which is familiar to apartment building dwellers.
The sound waves are carried farther by the hot summer air.
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