It was more difficult for other countries to follow the British pattern after peace was restored.
British goods have come to dominate world markets because of their economical production in the newly mechanized industries.
British technology has become so complex that few engineers or skil ed technicians outside England understand it.
The technology of steam power has grown more expensive.
It required the existence of rail roads after 1830 because of large investments in the iron and coal industries.
Continental business people had a hard time finding large sums of money that the new methods demanded, and laborers resisted the move to working in factories.
The spread of modern industry was slowed by all these factors.
European countries had at least three important advantages after 1814.
Most had a rich tradition of putting-out enterprise, merchant capitalists and urban artisans.
The tradition gave firms the ability to adapt to new market conditions.
Second, continental capitalists didn't need to develop their own technology.
They could "borrow" what they needed from Great Britain.
European countries such as France and Russia had a third asset that many non-Western areas lacked in the 19th century: strong, indepen dent governments that did not fall under foreign political control.
The power of the state would eventually be used to promote industry and catch up with Britain.
The British tried to keep their technical discoveries out of the public eye.
The export of textile machinery and other equipment was forbidden until 1843.
Many talented, ambitious workers left the country to follow the new methods abroad.
William Cockerill was a carpenter.
He and his sons built cotton-spinning equipment in Belgium.
John Cockerill built an industrial enterprise in Liege in southern Bel gium that produced steam engines and railway locomotives.
Modern ironworks and coal mines were established by him.
Cockeril's plants became a nerve center for industrial information in Europe.
British workers came to work for Cockeril, bringing with them the latest industrial plans and secrets from Britain.
A pioneer in the German machinery industry was a second agent of industrialization.
During his time in England, Harkort concluded that Germany had to match England's industrial achievements as quickly as possible.
He set up shop in the Ruhr Valley with the goal of producing steam engines.
Harkort turned to England for experienced mechanics because of the lack of skilled laborers.
It was difficult to getting materials.
He had to import thick iron boilers from England.
Harkort's enterprise proved to be a financial disaster for himself and his partners, despite the fact that he succeeded in building and selling engines.
Entrepreneurs like Harkort were exceptional.
Factory technology was adopted slowly by most continental businesses.
The expansion of handicraft industry in both rural and urban areas was brought about by continental industrialization.
Increased foreign demand for luxury items was created by the rising income of the international middle class in France.
A government's way of helping.
After Napoleon's wars ended in 1815, France was suddenly flooded with cheaper and imported goods from other countries.
The French government responded to British imports with high tariffs in order to protect the French economy.
The cost of building roads and canals rose after continental governments imposed high tariffs on British goods.
Some imported products were also bore to.
The career of Friedrich List, a German journalist and thinker, shows that industrialization is more important in Europe than in England.
The list considered the growth of modern industry to be of paramount importance because manufac turing was a primary means of increasing people's well-being and relieving their poverty.
List was a nationalist.
Promoting industry was to defend the nation.
Railroad building and the tariffs were practical policies that List focused on.
Goods could move between the German member states without tariffs, and a single uniform tariffs against other nations, thanks to a tariff union that came into being in 1834.
List wanted a high protective tariffs, which would encourage infant industries, and eventually allow them to hold their own against British counterparts.
Policies to develop the national economy have become popular in Germany.
Banks played a bigger role in Europe than in Britain.
Most banks in Europe were private.
Industrial investment was avoided by banks because of the risk of financial loss.