Edited Invalid date
28 -- Part 9: World War and Revolution
Hopes for international peace were strengthened by other developments.
The hope that the United States would accept its international responsibilities was encouraged by the pact.
European domestic politics gave hope.
Germany's republican government appeared ready to col apse during the Ruhr occupation.
In 1923 communists briefly entered provincial governments, and in November Hitler declared a "national socialist revolution".
Hitler's plan to take control of the government was poorly organized.
As the economy boomed, the elections were held regularly.
There were sharp political differences in the country.
The right and the army were populated by unrepentant nationalists and monarchists.
Moscow gave directions to members of Germany's Commu nist Party.
The majority of the working class supported the Social Democrats.
The situation in Germany was similar to that in France.
The workers' support was fought for by communists and socialists.
Business interests were represented in the government after it was elected in 1924.
France's great accomplishment was rapid rebuilding of its war-torn northern region, and good times continued until 1930.
After 1920, Britain faced chal enges.
The trend toward greater social equality continued during the war.
Social welfare measures such as unemployment benefits kept living standards from falling and helped establish a welfare state after World War II.
Social harmony was accompanied by the rise of the Labour Party.
The Labour Party was committed to moderate, "revisionist" socialism, so that the middle classes were not overly frightened as the working classes won new benefits.
Britain experienced limited social unrest in the 1920s and 1930s due to the British Conservatives' compromising spirit on social issues.
When Al ied diplomats met in Paris in 1919 with their optimistic plans, most people looked forward to a return to prewar peace, prosperity, and progress.
These hopes were not realized.
The First World War and the Russian Revolution damaged a lot of things.
Many men and women were drifting in an age of anxiety and crisis.
Before 1914, most people in the West believed in the Enlightenment philosophy of prog ress, reason, and individual rights.
Many thought that there were laws of society similar to the laws of science.
Dissenting voices were present.
Friedrich Nietzsche believed that reason, democracy, progress, and respectability were outworn social and psychological constructs that suffocated self-realization and excel ence.
The early twentieth century saw growing attention to a man who had little read during his lifetime.
The revolt against certainties in philosophy was accelerated by the First World War.
Austrian philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein was associated with logical positivism, which argued that life must be based on facts and observation.
The name dictory was given to philosophers who were searching for moral values in a world of uncertainty and anxiety.
They didn't believe that a supreme being had established a dictory philosophy that stressed the meaninglessness of existence and manity's fundamental nature.
A renewed interest in Christianity was caused by the loss of faith in human reason.
Chris tian fundamentals were rejuvenated after World War I.
They stressed the need for faith and the mystery of God's forgiveness.
Science was one of the main pil ars supporting Western so ciety.
Natural laws seemed to deter mine physical processes and allow useful solutions to more and more problems.
It was comforting to people who no longer follow traditional religious beliefs.
The new physics challenged all this.
The discovery at the end of the ninth century that atoms were not stable and unbreakable was the first step towards the new physics.
Marie Curie and her husband Pierre discovered that radium does not have a constant atomic weight.
German physicist Max Planck (1858-1947) showed in 1900 that subatomic energy is emitted in spurts and not in a steady stream.
The speed of light is the only constant for all frames of reference in the universe according to his theory of special relativity.
Einstein's theory stated that matter and energy are interchangeable and that a particle of matter has enormous levels of potential energy.
It was a breakthrough.
Ernest Rutherford split the atom in 1919.
By 1944, seven particles had been identified.
In the 1920s and 1930s, the implications of the new theories and discoveries were disturbing to many people.
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