31 -- Part 20: Global Recovery and Division Between Superpowers 1945 to the Present
Turkey's example of Westernization was followed by Iran after 1945.
The son of a shah angered Iranian nationalists by courting Western powers and oil companies.
The shah was forced to flee to Europe after the prime minister tried to nationalize the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company.
The shah was restored to his throne with the help of the American CIA.
Land reform, secular education, and increased power for the central government were used by the shah to build a powerful modern nation and ensure his own rule.
At the loss of ancient values, widespread corruption, and harsh dictatorship, modernization surged forward.
In 1979 an Islamic revolution was launched to bring strict Islamic principles into all aspects of life.
The fundamentalists deposed the shah in order to build their vision of a true Islamic state.
Iran frightened its neighbors.
Iran was feared to succeed in getting Iraq's Shi'ite majority to revolt against its Sunni leaders.
Saddam Hussein launched a surprise attack in September 1980, setting off an eight-year conflict.
Islam, Judaism, and Christianity all have significant populations in the Middle East.
Shi'ites throughout the region have become more militant in their demands for equality and power since the 1979 Iranian revolution.
One of the largest stateless ethnic groups, the Kurds, who follow various religions, have become a major player in the politics of the region, especially in Iraq and Turkey, where the group seeks Kurdish independence.
Hussein looked at Kuwait's oil wealth.
In August 1990 he ordered his forces to over run Kuwait.
The Persian Gulf War was started by his aggression.
His troops were chased out of Kuwait by an American-led, United Nations-sanctioned military coalition, which included Arab forces from Egypt, Syria, and Saudi Arabia.
Iran and Iraq went in different directions.
The UN Security Council imposed economic sanctions on Iraq after it invaded Kuwait, and they continued after the Gulf War to force Iraq to destroy its weapons of mass destruction.
The United Nations destroyed many such weapons, but the United States charged Iraq with continued weapons development.
The American-led invasion of Iraq in 2003 overthrew Saddam Hussein's regime.
Iran appeared to back away from fundamentalism as secular Iraq spiraled downward.
Iran had an elected president and parliament, but the power of the Supreme Leader and the Guardian Council was divided.
The Supreme Leader was a very conservative religious leader, but a growing reform move pressed for a relaxation of strict Islamic decrees and elected a moderate.
The religious leadership's most vocal opponents were jailed after the Supreme Leader vetoed many of the reform measures.
The 2005 election returns gave the presidency to an ultraconservative Islamic hardliner.
His populist speeches and actions caused a lot of anxiety and anger in the West, but they made him popular among some elements of Iranian society.
Many Iranians believe that moderate, secular reform is going to happen.
The Iranian regime has become more brutal in its opposition to internal dissent and has become less friendly with the United States and the West.
Despite a failed economic policy, the president was re-elected in 2009, despite a strong challenge from more moderate candidates.
Massive protests broke out after the election results and the government responded quickly.
The spread of the Shi'ite brand of Islamic fundamentalism to countries important part of nationalist movements across the Middle East in which the Shi'ite populations are either the ma throughout the Middle East in recent years or make up a large minority of the people is a question.
Asia and the Middle East have undergone tremendous economic, political, and social changes since the end of World War II.
Japan's defeat and the col apse of European imperial empires owe their existence to nationalist movements in these regions.
China and India declared themselves nonaligned in the Cold War.
They were concerned with feeding their hungry milions, rebuilding from the war and occupation, and creating stable governments, and copying the Western model of democratic capitalism.
In the Middle East, leaders talked about Pan-Arab unity but also about creating individual nations.
Many of them became one-party dictatorships just like the European colonial powers and the Ottoman Turks.
Chapter 33 explores decolonization in Africa and Latin America.
The United Nations has grown in importance in the decades since 1945 due to the efforts of UN representatives of Asian, African, and Latin American nations who have pushed for greater efforts to deal with global problems that have the most negative.
Growth of multinational corporations, the green revolution in agriculture, and mushrooming urbanization have both positive and harmful effects on the world's populations.