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21 Carboxylic Acid Derivatives -- Part 13
The structure of a four-residue segment of DNA can be drawn.
HIV, the pathogen responsible for AIDS, has a template that is copied into DNA.
The anti-HIV drug AZT (3'@azido@2',3'@dideoxythymidine), which becomes phosphorylated and is incorporated by reverse transcriptase into DNA, is exploited by its lack of selectivity.
The toxicity of mammalian DNA polymerases is low because it has a low affinity for AZT.
Draw the structures of AZT.
Draw the structure of AZT 5'@triphosphate.
Section 19-16) states that exposure to nitrous acid can convert cytosine to uracil.
The mechanism for this conversion should be proposed.
Explain how this conversion would change.
uracil is found in RNA, but not in DNA.
Explain that the nitrous-acid-induced mutations of cytosine to uracil is easier to repair in DNA than it is in RNA.
H. G. Khorana won the Medicine Prize in 1968 for his work on the synthesis of DNA and the decoding of the genetic code.
The 5' OH group of nucleosides were part of the chemistry he developed.
The 5' OH group's trityl ether derivatives are obtained by reacting the nucleoside with trityl chloride, MMT chloride, or DMT chloride.
Aqueous acid can be used to remove the trityl ether derivative.
DMT derivatives hydrolyze fastest, followed by MMT derivatives and trityl derivatives.
The product should be drawn on the 5' oxygen.
Explain why the 5' OH group is not included in the trityl derivative.
Which of the following are acidic, basic, and neutral?
The isoelectric point can be used to predict the charge on an acid.
Show how to combine the two acids in the correct sequence to make apeptide.
The structure of an unknown peptide can be determined using information from terminal residue analysis and partial hydrolysis.
The levels of the most abundant organic molecule in animals are identified in the introduction.
Spider web is composed mostly of fibroin, a protein with a bunch of amino acids.
The amide secondary structure is joined by the individual amino acid subunits.
Figure 24-1 shows the general structure of the arrangement.
The great strength of the molecule is due to the amazing range of structural and catalytic properties.
Spider silk has the same strength as steel, but it has six different functions in living organisms.
The amide linkages are called peptide bonds.
One of the major branches of biochemistry is the study of proteins, and there is no clear division between their organic chemistry and their biochemistry.
In this chapter, we learn about the amino acids.
We talk about how the properties of aProtein depend on those of its constituent amino acids.
These concepts are needed for the study of the function and structure of the human body.
The side chains are replaced on the a carbon atom.
There is a side chain of the amino acid alanine.
The a@amino acids are all different.
The asymmetric a carbon atom is the center of all of the chiral acids.
The sign of the optical rotation, called racemases, is not implied by it.
The compounds carboxylic acids are used by mammals because they combine many of the properties and reactions of amines.
Some unique properties and reactions can be found in the combination of a basic amino group and an acidic carboxyl.
The mammals and show promise as side chains of some acids lend themselves to antibiotics.
The side chains that bond the carbon atoms to the standard amino acids are different.
L-amino acids are the standard for the amino acids.
The table shows the chemical properties of the side chains.
A three-letter abbreviation and a one-letter symbol are given to each of the amino acids.
Proline is different from the other standard acids.
Its carbon atom is fixed in a ring.
Humans are able to synthesise half of the amino acids needed.
Adult humans need about 50 g of complete protein per day.
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