It all started with…
Tricked people into giving money to the church.
He sold indulgences to raise money to build a new church in Rome.
Indulgence: A payment to the Catholic Church that grants a release from punishment from all sins.
One man thought Tetzel went too far…
Martin Luther (Reformer)
He did not agree with the teachings of the Church or the selling of indulgences.
He issued an official criticism (written document challenging the Church.)
He featured 95 arguments.
He posted his 95 theses on the church door at Wittenberg, Germany.
Salvation people could receive salvation through faith alone, not just actions
Role of priests nothing more than an officeholder. Anyone can perform church rituals.
Role of pope and Bible Bible is true authority. People could disobey the Pope if he doesn't speak from the Bible.
Because of his 'crimes' he was excommunicated from the church in 1521.
The Success of Luther
Germans were attracted to Luther's teachings.
The poor liked the message of equality.
Movement where peasants revolted against the church.
Peace of Augsburg: gave Lutherans right to practice their own religion.
Other Leaders of the Reformation
People who had voices stepped up too.
Known as the Reformation.
The Reformation spreads to Switzerland and Scandinavia:
Both areas begin to open churches and the churches became known as Prostestant.
Christians who separated from the Catholic Church were known as Protestant.
Leaders = ministers
Conducted services in the language of the area instead of in Latin
Spent more time teaching from the Bible
Some churches wanted to completely break free of Catholic rituals
Church leaders were called priests.
Conducted services in Latin.
A King becomes part of the Reformation…
In 1531, King Henry VIII was expelled from the Roman Catholic Church.
King Henry VIII…
King of England
Wanted a male child to inherit his throne
Catherine, his wife, only gave him a daughter.
He needed the Church to officially end his marriage.
Church refused and Henry attacked.
In 1534, Henry broke from the Catholic Church and made a new church, Anglican church or Church of England
Passed the Act of Supremacy, which made himself the head of the Church of England.
First Wife: Catherine of Aragon
She had a baby girl named Mary. She later became queen of england.
Second Wife: Anne Boelyn
Baby girl named Elizabeth (Queen Elizabeth I)
Baby boy named Edward
Jane died shortly after giving birth
After Henry VIII died, his son Edward took the throne at 9 years old.
Edward embarrassed his sister Mary in front of a large party because she continued to practice Catholicism.
Edward died at 15. in his will, he took Elizabeth and Mary out of succession and a distant cousin took the throne.
Mary burned at the stake for 'crime' of being Protestant.
Mary died and Elizabeth took the throne.
Ended Pope's authority in the English Church.
Elizabeth and Parliament decided that the Church should be Protestant. However, the Church would keep some of the Catholic features.
Reforms in R.C.C
carried out its own reforms
established the society of jesus, jesuits worked hard to educate people and spread faith
called for the Council of Trent which focused on religion and spirituality