Chapter 23 -- Part 3: The Revolution in Energy and Industry
The conditions of apprenticeship and the wages of artisans were repealed in 1814.
Some skilled artisan workers found aggressive capitalists ignoring traditional work rules and trying to flood their trades with women and children in order to beat down wages, as a result of these and other measures.
Unions and strikes were banned by English laws in the 19th century.
Parliament repealed the acts in 1824.
The unions displayed their certificates in their homes to show that they were skilled workers.
Many craftworkers resented the capitalist attack on their guilds and work rules and helped build the modern labor movement in Great Britain and other countries.
Workers ignored the Combination Acts.
Craftsmen and societies of skilled factory workers organized unions.
Unions wanted to control the number of skilled workers, limit apprenticeship to members' own children, and bargain with owners over wages.
Parliament repealed the Combination Acts in 1824 in the face of widespread union activity, but unions were not fully accepted after 1824.
The attempt to create a single large national union was the next stage in the development of the British trade-union movement.
The effort was not led by working people like Robert Owen.
Owen, a self-made cotton manufacturer, had pioneered in industrial relations by combining firm discipline with concern for the health, safety, and hours of his workers.
He used to experiment with socialist and cooperative communities.
The Grand National Consolidated Trades Union was one of the largest and most visionary of the early national unions.
After Owen's and other grandiose schemes collapsed, the British labor movement moved once again in the direction of craft unions.
The unions won real benefits for their members by being fairly conservative.
British workers were involved in political activity in defense of their interests.
Many working people went into the Chartist movement after the collapse of Owen's national trade union.
Workers were active in campaigns to limit the workday in factories to ten hours and to allow duty-free importation of wheat into Great Britain to secure cheap bread.
The new industrial system was shaped by working people who developed a sense of their own identity.
They were not helpless victims or passive beneficiaries.
The mass labor force of the Industrial Revolution was composed of millions of enslaved men, women, and children who toiled in European colonies in the Caribbean and in the nations of North and South America.
Historians have debated how much revenue from slavery contributed to Britain's achievements in the Industrial Revolution.
British national income from plantations and slave trading was small in the 18th century.
The impact of slavery on Britain's economy was not limited to direct profits.
The need for items to exchange for colonial cotton, sugar, tobacco, and slaves stimulated demand for British manufactured goods in the Caribbean, North America, and West Africa.
The development of finance and credit institutions was a result of Britain's dominance in the slave trade.
The British Parliament abolished the slave trade in 1807 and freed all slaves in British territories in 1833, but by 1850 most of the cotton processed by British mills was supplied by slaves in the southern United States.
The misery of slavery was connected to the Industrial Revolution.
Britain was able to increase production due to its stable government, abundant natural resources, and flexible labor force, as markets for manufactured goods increased both domestically and overseas.
Inventions in the textile industry led to the creation of the first factories.
The steam engine, which transformed the iron industry, was one of the innovations that resulted from the demand for improvements in energy.
The adoption of steam-powered trains and ships improved the transportation of goods in the early 19th century.
England's technical breakthrough began to be built on by continental European countries.
Local artisans and English immigrants are hired by entrepreneurs to set up their own factories.
Newly established corporate banks worked with the government to promote railroads and other industries.
The Industrial Revolution spread more slowly outside Europe as many countries were limited to producing agricultural goods and other raw materials to serve European markets.
The rise of modern industry began in Britain in the late 18th century.
The rise of a modern industrial working class was caused by industrialization.
Improvements in the standard of living came slowly, but they were significant by 1850.
Women stopped working and focused on child care and household responsibilities.
The era of industrialization fostered new attitudes toward child labor, encouraged protective factory legislation, and called for a new sense of class feeling.
Slave labor in European colonies contributed to the rise of the Industrial Revolution by increasing markets for European goods, supplying raw materials, and encouraging the development of financial systems.
Europe lags behind older and more sophisticated civilizations in China and the Middle East.
In order for Europe to rise, it had to have control over world trade first in the Indian Ocean in the 16th and 17th century and then in the 18th century Atlantic world.
The Industrial Revolution, which dramatically increased the pace of production and distribution while reducing their cost, allowed Europeans to control other countries first economically and then politically.
By the middle of the 19th century, the economic dependence of non-Western nations, meager wages for their largely impoverished populations, and increasingly aggressive Western imperial ambitions were brought about by the widening gap between Western industrial production and standards of living.
Non-Western countries began to experience their own processes of industrialization in the late 19th century.
There is a surge in productivity in China, India, and other non-Western nations with uncertain consequences for the global balance of power.
Explain the significance of each item.
Explains why the Industrial Revolution took place in Britain.
The most contentious debates in the field are re-examined in a collection of essays by leading scholars.
An account of the experience of children during the Industrial Revolution is based on many autobiographies.
The impact of Enlightenment openness and curiosity is emphasized in a masterful explanation of industrialization and economic growth in Britain.
The story of the individuals, inventions, and trade networks that transformed the United States from a rural economy to a global industrial power is told.
The path toward economic development in Britain and the rest of Europe is compared.
The origins and growth of industrialization in Europe can be traced back to the similarities and differences between Europe and China.
An account of the role of child labor in the Industrial Revolution is based on written testimonies.
From the Civil War to the Great Depression, bankers and industrialists created modern America.
The story of the mechanization of the cotton industry in Britain and the United States is told in a combination of documentary video and animated re enactments.
In a European coal-mining town during the Industrial Revolution, exploited workers go on strike and encounter brutal oppression from the authorities.
A film based on a novel by Charles Dickens depicts the harsh conditions of life for orphans and poor children in London in the 19th century.
There is a collection of images from the 18th and 19th century.
The web is spinning.
Information on the people, places, industrial processes, and products involved in the mechanization of the British cotton industry can be found on a website.
Women working in the 1800's and 1930's.
There are links to sources related to women's labor in the 19th and early 20th century in the digital collection of the Harvard University Library.