There is a chance that the abnormality in the brain leads to schizophrenia.
The MrI of the twin with schizophrenia shows phrenia, whereas drugs that increase dopamine activity increase symptoms.
The fluid- filled neurotransmitters may be involved.
Neurological signs of schizophrenia can be seen long before the disorder is diagnosed.
Elaine Walker and colleagues analyzed home movies taken by parents.
Compared with their siblings, those who developed the disorder had more severe negative emotions.
The children's early years often saw all of the differences.
Studies show that schizophrenia develops over the life course, but that symptoms often show up by late adolescence.
Even in young children, there may be hints of future problems.
Other factors must also be at work because genetics do not account for the severity of schizophrenia.
Environmental stress seems to contribute to the development of schizophrenia in people who are genetically at risk.
The model discussed in study unit 14.2 is consistent with this finding.
One study looked at children who were adopted after their biological mothers were diagnosed with schizophrenia.
If the adoptive families were not stable, 11 percent of the children would develop schizophrenia and 41 percent would have severe psychological disorders.
If a child has a genetic risk for Walder, Faraone, Glatt and Tsuang.
If the family environment is healthy, a child has a low risk for developing schizophrenia even if they have a genetic risk.
Increased stress in a healthy family environment can cause the disorder, according to some researchers.
Being born or raised in an urban area will double the risk of developing schizophrenia.
If a child has no genetic risk of developing later in life.
Some people think that the child will have a low schizophrenia because of a virus.
The close quarters of a big city increases the risk of developing the disorder.
There is strong evidence that a child is raised in a family environment that is healthy.
Maternal inflammation, such as from a virus, plays a significant role in schizophrenia.
Multiple factors may serve as a triggering factor for the development of schizophrenia for people who are genetically susceptible.
Write your answers to the questions and check them out.
Answers to the red Q questions can be found in Appendix B.
Your personality is a reflection of your environment, as you learned in the study units.
It is part of who you are.
By the end of adolescence, the ways that you interact with the world and cope with events are set.
Some people's identities make them interact with the world in ways that are maladaptive.
Although people with personality disorders do not hallucinate or experience radical mood swings, their ways of interacting with the world can have serious consequences for the individual, family and friends.
In study unit 13.1, you learned that your sense of self is how you view your personality and is usually consistent.
You experience yourself in the same way, even though situations may bring out different aspects of yourself.
There are two disorders of self discussed in the study units.
Write your own explanations of bold and italic terms.
Explain how one imaginary person would display the characteristics of a personality disorder from cluster A, another person would display them from a disorder in cluster B, and a third person would display them from a disorder in cluster c.
Explain the similarities and differences between borderline personality disorder and antisocial personality disorder.
Disorders in the first group are characterized by odd or eccentric behavior.
They have a hard time forming personal relationships because of their strange behavior.
People with personality disorders show some similarities to people with schizophrenia, but their symptoms are not as severe.
Dramatic, emotional, or erratic behaviors are among the disorders in the second group.
The focus of research has been on the disorders, so they are discussed in more detail in the next subsections.
These disorders share some of the same characteristics as anxiety disorders.
The third group refers to maladaptive ways of interacting with others and of responding to events.
People with obsessive-compulsive disorder have real obsessions and compulsions, but people with obsessive-compulsive personality disorder do not.
Adapted from the American Psychiatric Association.
A personality disorder is characterized by at the same time reading a newspaper in a particular order, each of which has a different effect on identity, moods, and time.
People with Obsessive Compulsive Disorders are often distressed by their rituals.
People with personality disorders can't travel or maintain relationships.
The disorder is characterized by emotional states, identity and impulse control.
In 1980 this complex disorder was officially recognized as a diagnosis.
Approximately 1-2 percent of adults meet the criteria for borderline personality disorder, and the disorder is more common in women than in men.
People with borderline personality disorder don't have a strong sense of self.
They are afraid of being abandoned and cannot tolerate being alone.
They need an exclusive and dependent relationship with another person in order to control their relationships.
There are problems with identity for borderline individuals.
Emotional instability is a key feature.
Shifts from one mood to another is not usually obvious.
The third feature of borderline personality disorder is impulsivity, which may explain the higher rate of the disorder in prisons than in the general population.
Sexual promiscuity, physical fighting, and binge eating can all be considered Impulsivity.
A high risk for suicide is associated with this disorder, which is why it is associated with cutting and burning of the skin.
The frontal lobes are important for controlling behavior in people with borderline personality disorder.
There is a strong relationship between the disorder and trauma or abuse, which may explain the environmental component of borderline personality disorder.
70% of patients with borderline personality disorder have experienced physical or sexual abuse, according to some studies.
Some theories suggest that borderline patients may have had caretakers who were unreliable or unavailable.
It was difficult for the patients to learn to regulate their emotions and understand emotional reactions to events because of the constant rejection.
The caregivers encouraged dependence, preventing the individuals in their charge from developing a sense of self.
If they are rejected by others, they reject themselves.
Ted Bundy violated the bodies of many young women and girls while he was a serial killer.
Most people wouldn't have been given a diagnosis of stand Bundy's behavior.
One of the defense attorneys described him as having a personality disorder.
He was executed for his crimes.
A personality disorder is marked by being dishonest and irresponsible.
People with APD are willing to violate the rights of others and hurt them without showing any concern or remorse.
People with this disorder tend to be focused on pleasure and not thinking about others.
Such individuals could be charming and rational, but they could also be insincere, unsocial, and incapable of love.
Not all criminals have APD.
People with psychopathic tendencies have more extreme behaviors than those with APD.
They have other personality characteristics that are not found in those with APD, such as being smooth- talking, having high sense of self- worth, and being unemotional.
They don't have remorse, lie or cheat.
Their behavior is dangerous because they can be very hard- hearted.
One study found that murderers with psychopathic tendencies almost always kill.
They want to get something, such as money, sex, or drugs.
When provoked or angry, those without psychopathic tendencies are more likely to commit murder.
Psychopaths fit the stereotype of cold-blooded killers.
Put psychology to work on p. 591 to learn about this field.
People with psychopathic tendencies are often seen as smart and charming.
Some psychopaths are successful professionals because of their devious tendencies.
Business and politics may have advantages due to their psychopathic traits.
About 1% of the population in the United States has APD.
Less common are people with this condition who have more extreme psychopathic tendencies.
APD is more common in men than in women.
In 1957, David who appears to be a successful professional but also a serial killer, was reported to have no fear by those with APD.
The investigators have continued this research, showing that such individuals do not seem to feel fear or anxiety.
They don't learn from punishment because they don't like it.
Adolescents at risk for developing APD have a reduced psychophysiological response in the face of punishment.
Abnormalities in multiple brain regions involved in responding to fear and controlling impulses have been found in people with APD.
You can read more about this research in The Methods of Psychology.
When viewing faces with fear expressions, the amygdala will show abnormal activity.
Children and adolescents were shown pictures of faces with expressions on their faces.
One group of children had been identified as having callous-unemotional traits, another group had attention deficit disorder, and the final group was comparison children who did not have a psychological disorder.
The brain activity was different when the participant was looking at the neutral expression and when they were looking at the emotional expression.
Youths with callous-unemotional traits showed less activity in the amygdala compared to the healthy comparison youths.
There was no difference in brain activity when angry and neutral expressions were used.
The results show that children at risk for developing a personality disorder have reduced responses to distress.
Impaired processing of social cues that indicate social distress may be caused by the lack of amygdala response in such children.
These at-risk youths may engage in behaviors that distress others.
The amygdala activity was reduced in response to fearful expressions.
There is a reduced amygdala response to fearful expressions in children and adolescents.
Write your own explanations of bold and italic terms.
Compare the similarities and differences in the disorders of amnesia, fugue, and identity disorder.
Sometimes you get lost in your thoughts and can't remember what's going on around you.
Maybe you've had the experience of forgetting what you're doing in the middle of an action.
You may not know where you are when you wake up in an unfamiliar place.
Your thoughts and experiences can become separated from the outside world.