The middle of the decade was a turning point in history.
China has overtaken the United States as the world's largest economy.
America's domination of the global economy came to an end by this measure.
China's economy is expected to grow at a faster pace than the United States.
China could surpass the U.S. GDP in total market terms.
Questions of globalization have been the source of heated debate around the globe.
One of the causes and effects is the first.
The rise of globalization, the end of the Cold War, and the expansion of liberal economic ideas over communism meant that China, long isolated from the rest of the world, could finaly partake.
In this view, globalization has been an inexorable force that has drawn in China just as it has other countries and parts of the world.
Others argue that China is to blame for globalization.
China started to focus on export- driven growth in the 1980s.
This changed economies around the world.
Commodities like copper and oil are exported to feed China's development in the face of local industries disappearing worldwide.
China's economic growth has driven the decline of global poverty.
There are a second set of questions.
The first position is that China's international ties are transforming the country's domestic politics.
The liberal view asserts that globalization leads to the spread of democratic ideas and the emergence of a middle class.
The Communist Party will be swept away by these changes.
This process can't be stopped by an authoritarian system.
Others are not sure.
They think that China is driving global political change, not the other way around.
Reforms in domestic economic institutions owe China to expand globalization, but these reforms only reinforce authoritarian legitimacy at home by promising prosperity in exchange for acquiescence.
China has the ability to change the global order due to its growing economic power.
This power includes growing influence via trade and investment from Latin America to Africa, as well as pressuring its Asian neighbors to acquiesce to Chinese demands.
The West's promotion of liberal values is being undermined by these changes.
The world may continue to globalize, but it will be on China's terms.
We are presented with two stark alternatives, each based on a different view of the causes and effects of globalization.
Despite their very different conclusions, the arguments share an emphasis on globalization that reduces the role of domestic institutions that have been central to this book.
The assumption is that China is rising to the position of a dominant world actor and that it ignores domestic factors.
We should scrutinize these arguments more closely.
China's GDP has leaped forward, but in per capita terms it is still much poorer than the developed democracies.
It is not certain if it will catch up to the developed democracies soon.
In the last chapter, we talked about the kind of trap that China may face.
Domestic factors that may limit China's rise to prominence and even undermine globalization include slowing economic growth, an aging population, extensive environmental, and increased corruption.
A generation ago, scholars and pundits said that Japan was the number one country in the world.
Economic globalization can change markets and property within and between countries.
Analyze how globalization may affect old identities.
Evaluate if globalization is new, exaggerated, or inevitable.
The textbook is about the struggle to balance freedom and equality.
States must use their capacity to generate and enforce policy when societies clash over how to reconcile the two values.
Democratic institutions think that the best way to reconcile freedom and equality is through public participation.
A variety of institutional tools has led to a political world where freedom and equality are balanced in many different ways.
This dynamic has become more interna tional over the past two decades.
International forces such as war and trade, empires and colonies, migration and the spread of ideas have always shaped domestic politics.
At an increasingly rapid pace, linkages between states, societies, and economies appear to be intensifying, and they are challenging long- standing institutions.
Although the extent of globalization and its long- term impact remain unclear, behind it lies the sense that the battle over freedom and equality is an international one, no longer a concern to be solved by each country in its own way.