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ChAPTER 3 -- Part 2: Asia's First Civilizations: India
Kings and priests owned a lot of land.
Slaves, who had been in wars with nearby tribes, worked here.
The traditions of the region were set up by the Sumerian political and social organization.
The tradition of regional rule was established by the city-state government.
Slave labor was used by many successor civilizations.
The use of slaves and the lack of natural barriers to invasion help explain recurrent warfare, which was needed to supply labor in the form of captured slaves.
Political stability and the use of writing added to the economic prosperity of the Sumerians.
Farmers learned how to grow onions and garlic.
donkeys carried goods and oxen were used to pull plows.
The carts were used to transport goods.
The use of silver as a means of exchange for buying and selling was introduced by the Sumerians.
Major cities expanded with substantial housing units in rows of flat-roofed, mud-brick shops and apartments.
A form of writing was developed by many people.
The potter's wheel and the production of pottery sumerians were improved by the Sumerians.
Spurred by the increasing skill level and commercial importance of pottery, men began stylus and clay tablets.
Glass was also invented by the Sumerians.
Trade moved to the lower Persian Gulf and the western part of the Middle East.
By 2000 b.c.e., the Sumerians had contacts with India.
Between the advent of agriculture and the age of the steam engine, writing was the most important thing to do.
The invention of writing by the Sumerians was sudden.
It was based on new needs for commercial property and political records, as well as a celebration of the deeds of proud local kings.
The invention of clay cylinder seals made it possible to record small pictures of objects.
The pictures were baked on clay tablets and turned into symbols.
The early Sumerian alphabet may have had as many as 2000 symbols from the early pictures.
The Sumerians were able to reduce the alpha bet to about 300 symbols because writers began to use more abstract symbols to represent sounds.
The writers used a stick to impress the symbols on the tablets.
Cuneiform writing was hard to learn, so specialized writers dominated it.
The picture shows a power over an object.
The map focuses on allowing people to impose an order over nature and the social defining the king's estate, with sections for priests and for key gods world.
The first hero in world literature was described as the ruler of a city-state.
The great flood was also described in this epic.
The tone of the epic and of Sumerian culture was somber.
The gods have iron laws that control human destiny.
Like the new moon, the heroes have their waxing and waning.
Without him there is no light.
This was the meaning of your dream.
You were given the kingship, but it was not your life's purpose.
You will never find the life you seek.
The gods made death a part of human fate.
Sumerian art and science developed quickly.
The temples of the gods were adorned with statues and painted frescoes.
The science of astronomy was found by the Sumerians, who sought to learn more about the sun and stars.
They wanted to improve their mathematical knowledge.
The Sumerian system of numbers, based on units of 12 to 60, is the one we use today.
In the Middle East and India, Sumerian charts of major constella tions have been used for 5000 years.
An abstract thought about nature on which many later societies still rely.
The first literary Religion was very important in Sumerian culture and politics.
In Western civilization, Gods were associated with written forces of nature.
At the same time, gods were seen as having human form and many of the more down c. 2000 b.c.e.
The gods quarreled and used their power in Flood.
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