Changes in human behavior and beliefs, as well as various preservation strategies, are needed to meet the challenge of preserving biodiversity.
It is now possible to catalog the planet's species in an accessible way thanks to the technology of genetics and data processing.
Plants may be barcoded using a combination of genes.
The work is relatively inexpensive and quick because of the rapid mass sequencing machines.
The large volumes of data can be accessed through the computer resources store.
Projects are currently underway to catalog museum specimen, which have already been named and studied, as well as testing the method on less-studied groups.
More than 200,000 named species have been barcoded.
There are a lot of species that are too similar to sibling species to be considered different.
These can be identified with a DNA barcoding.
Information about named species and a framework for adding new species can be found in numerous computer databases.
It will take close to 500 years for the complete catalog of life to be known at the present rate of description of new species.
Many species on the planet don't have much time.
Understanding which species known to science are threatened and what degree they are threatened is a problem.
Scientific research supports the Red List.
There were 61,000 species on the list in 2011.
The percentage of various animal species is shown in the chart.
There are more vulnerable fishes.
There are more critically-endangered animals than there are critically-endangered animals.
The world has enacted legislation to protect species.
National and state laws are included in the legislation.
The treaty and the national legislation that supports it provide a legal framework for preventing approximately 33,000 listed species from being transported across nations' borders, thus protecting them from being caught or killed when international trade is involved.
The treaty only deals with international movement of organisms or their parts.
It is limited by the ability of some countries to enforce the treaty.
A market in the hundreds of millions of dollars is likely for the illegal trade in organisms and their parts.
Hunting and fishing are regulated within many countries.
The U.S. is listed as a species at risk.
The law requires the Fish & Wildlife Service to come up with plans to protect the listed species and bring them back to sustainable numbers.
The Act is a useful tool, but it is often difficult to get a species listed, or to get an effective management plan in place once it is listed.
It is possible that a species is taken off the list without having changed their situation.
The approach to protecting individual species rather than entire ecosystems is inefficient and focuses efforts on a few highly visible and charismatic species.
The Act has a critical habitat provision that may benefit species other than the one targeted for management.
Over 800 species are protected by the Act.
It's against the law to disturb or kill the protected species or distribute their parts.
In North America and around the world, the private non-profit sector plays a large role in the effort to conserve.
The approaches range from species specific to broadly focused.
It protects land in an attempt to set up preserves.
The Paris Climate Agreement is a significant step towards altering human behavior in a way that should affect the environment.
Many species negatively affected by climate change may benefit if the agreement is successful.
Measurement of the accord's effects will not be feasible for a while.
The world's most concerted and unified effort to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, embrace alternative energy sources, and ease climate pressure is represented by the agreement.
The establishment of wildlife and preserves is a key tool in the effort to conserve.
A preserve is an area of land set aside with different degrees of protection for organisms.
Preserves can be effective in the short term for protecting both species and ecosystems, but they face challenges that scientists are still exploring to strengthen their viability as long-term solutions to the preservation of biodiversity and the prevention of extinction.
It is difficult to determine how much land or marine habitat should be protected due to the way protected lands are allocated.
According to the World Parks Congress, more than 10% of Earth's land surface was covered by preserves in 2003 The area is greater than before, but only includes 9 out of 14 recognized major biomes.
Individual animals or types of animals are not represented in the same way on preserves.
High quality preserves only include about 50 percent of threatened amphibian species.
More attention is needed to the latter solution.
There is a lot of research into optimal preserve designs.
The seminal theoretical work of Robert H. MacArthur and Edward O. Wilson was published in 1967.
The conclusion was that the origin of species on an island was a function of migration, speciation, and extinction.
The number of species and migration are lower on islands farther from a mainland.
Evidence suggests that the number of species on the island gradually increases to a level similar to the numbers on the mainland from which the species is suspected to have migrated.
Smaller islands are harder to find and have lower immigration rates for new species.
Smaller islands are less diverse and have fewer niches to promote speciation.
Smaller islands support smaller populations, so the probability of extinction is higher.
The effect of island area on species numbers is not a direct correlation, but as islands get larger, the number of species able to colonize the island increases.
There are islands of habitat within an ocean of non-habitat.
The preserve must be large enough to support the species.
The critical size is dependent on the home range that is characteristic of the species.
A preserve for wolves, which range hundreds of kilometers, must be much larger than a preserve for butterflies, which range within ten kilometers.
Larger preserves have more core area of optimal habitat for individual species, they have more niches to support more species, and they attract more species because they can be found and reached more easily.
The buffer allows organisms to leave the preserve without being negatively affected by the lack of resources.
One large preserve is better than the same area of several smaller preserves because there is more core habitat unaffected by edges.
When planning the nature of a preserve, all of these factors are taken into account.
In addition to the physical, biological, and ecological specifications of a preserve, there are a variety of policy, legislative, and enforcement specifications related to uses of the preserve for functions other than protection of species.
There can be anything from regulated hunting to nondestructive human recreation.
Many of the policy decisions are based on political pressures.
In some cases, wildlife protection policies have been so strict that indigenous populations have been forced from ancestral lands.
Even if a preserve is designed to protect wildlife, if the protections are not or cannot be enforced, the preserve status will have little meaning in the face of illegal activity.
There is a problem with preserves in the tropics.
The discussion of preserve design shows some of the limitations on preserves.
Setting aside areas that are large enough is difficult due to political and economic pressures.
A buffer around the preserve may not be enough if the area set aside is large.
An area on the outer edges of the preserve becomes a riskier habitat for the species in the preserve.
In countries without resources or political will, enforcement of protections is a significant issue.
There will be problems with the location of preserves.
As the habitat of the preserve becomes less favorable, the species within them may migrate to higher latitudes.
Predicting the need for new preserves to accommodate anticipated changes to habitats is one of the ways scientists are planning for the effects of global warming.
An argument can be made that conservativism indicates that humans are growing more separate from nature and that humans only operate in ways that do damage to the environment.
Preserves may reduce the pressure on humans outside the preserve to be sustainable.
Preserves can present opportunities for humans to witness nature in a less damaging way, and they can also present some financial benefits to local economies.
Preserves alone are not likely to mitigate the economic and demographic pressures on biodiversity.
Humans will need to alter their activities in order to benefit from it.
There is an interactive global data system on this website.
Data about protected areas can be reviewed by location or by country or region.
Habitat restoration can be used to restore and maintain biodiversity.
It is impossible to restore a species that has become extinct.
Restoration can improve the environment.
In 1995 wolves were reintroduced to the park, which led to dramatic changes in the ecology.
The wolves provide more resources to the guild of carrion eaters.
Reducing the number of animals has allowed the revegetation of some areas.
Reducing the coyote population has led to an increase in the populations of other species.
There are more species of carrion eaters because of the wolves.
A collapse in diversity may be caused by the removal of a keystone species.
According to the results of the Yellowstone experiment, restoring a keystone species can have a positive effect on the community.
Ecologists argue for the identification of keystone species where possible and for focusing protection efforts on those species if they have been removed.
The introduction of wolves into the park changed the behavior of the animals.
In order to avoid being eaten, the elk no longer grazed exposed stream and riverbeds.
willow and cottonwood plants were allowed to grow in large areas.
The fish habitat was improved by the shading provided by the seedlings.
The habitat change may have helped a new colony of beaver.
Dam removal is one of the large-scale restoration experiments underway.
The benefits of dam removal include restoration of naturally fluctuating water levels, which leads to increased fish diversity and improved water quality.
In the Pacific Northwest, dam removal projects are expected to increase populations of salmon, which is considered a keystone species because it transports key nutrients to inland ecosystems during its annual spawning migrations.
In the Atlantic coast, dam removal has allowed the return of spawning anadromous fish species that live most of their lives in salt water.
For the consequences to be measured, some of the largest dam removal projects have yet to happen.
Valuable data for other dam projects slated for removal or construction will be provided by the large-scale ecological experiments that these removal projects constitute.
Zoos have sought to play a role in the preservation of the environment.
The mission of zoos is changing from collection and exhibition facilities to organizations that are dedicated to the preservation of the environment.
When the species are reintroduced to the wild, captive breeding programs are inefficient and prone to failure.
The American condor was reintroduced to the Grand Canyon and the Whooping Crane was reestablished along the Midwest flyway as a result of captive breeding programs.
Zoo facilities are too limited to consider captive breeding programs for the number of species that are at risk.
Given the global trend to urbanization and the reduction in contacts between people and wildlife, education is a potential positive impact on zoos.
There are a number of studies done to look at the effectiveness of zoos on people's attitudes and actions.
Humans use many compounds that were first discovered or of those taking the measurements in order to measure the importance of Biodiversity.
The secondary plant include numbers of species, genetic diversity, chemical compounds, toxins, and antibiotics produced by diversity.
It is estimated that there are 1.5 million species and 17,000 new discoveries in nature.
Each year, the species being described will be impacted by the loss of biodiversity.
Crop diversity is a requirement for food security, and it is most taxa, meaning that it is higher in the tropics.
The mechanism for this pattern is not known.
Several plausible hypotheses have been advanced.
The fossil record shows the loss of species.
It's possible that wild food sources are as old as 30 million years.
Recent extinctions are mostly aquatic, but few of these resources are being recorded in written history.
Estimates of extinction rates are provided by the fisheries.
The extinction method uses measures of habitat loss and species-area to threaten the otherprotein to human populations.
Estimates of contemporary extinction rates vary, but some rates are as high as 500 times the background fossil record and are predicted humans.
There are moral arguments for the to rise.
Human population borders are the main threats to biodiversity.
Growth and unsustainable resource use are protected by legislation.
Habitat loss, success, and overharvesting are some of the causes of extinction for the most species and agreements on global warming.
Reducing global climate change is implemented as a means.
Habitat loss occurs through the United States but is hampered by procedural difficulties and human activities.
A focus on individual species is at risk of overharvesting.
The taking of bush meat in the humid agreement between Canada and the United States threatens many species in Asia, Africa and the migratory birds.
The non-profit sector is active in the Americas.
Exotic species have been the cause of a number of efforts to conserve.
Exotic species' introduction are increasing damaging native protection.
Around the world, 11 percent of Earth's land surface is protected.
The optimal design of preserves has been informed by the science of island biogeography mobility of human populations and growing global trade.
Climate change is making range changes that preserves have limitations imposed.
It is affecting the economic forces.
Climate change will affect the timing of resource availability that negatively affects the effectiveness of preserves in the future.
The impacts of climate change may reduce the pressure on humans in the northern part of the world.
Sea societies will function more sustainable outside the preserves because of global warming.
Before species become extinct, the previous levels of biodiversity should be preserved.
Zoos have attempted information processing and accessibility are helping to take a more active role in the preservation of the planet's flora and fauna.
There is a limited role for captive breeding programs.
There is a legislative framework for biodiversity protection in zoos.
An example of converting a prairie to a farm field was found below the K-Pg boundary.
Above the K-Pg boundary, there was an abundance of fern spores from several species.
There are more vulnerable fishes.
There are more critically-endangered animals than there are critically-endangered animals.
Exotic species are threatening to what kind of thing.
A mass extinction is defined.
States will be sold as pets.
Pollination is an example.
The nerves of the spine were replaced with 52 hydrocarbons and 844 spiracles.
Preface About OpenStax About OpenStax resources Customization Errata Format About Biology 2e Coverage and scope Changes to the Second Edition Pedagogical foundation Art and animations that engage Additional resources Student and instructor resources Community Hubs Technology partners About the authors Second edition authors and reviewers First edition authors and reviewers
Chapter 1 The Study of Life Introduction Chapter Outline 1.1 The Science of Biology The Process of Science Natural Sciences Scientific Reasoning The Scientific Method Proposing a Hypothesis Testing a Hypothesis Visual Connection Visual Connection Two Types of Science: Basic Science and Applied Science Reporting Scientific Work 1.2 Themes and Concepts of Biology Properties of Life Order Sensitivity or Response to Stimuli Link to Learning Reproduction Adaptation Growth and Development Regulation/Homeostasis Energy Processing Evolution Levels of Organization of Living Things Link to Learning Visual Connection The Diversity of Life Evolution Connection Carl Woese and the Phylogenetic Tree Branches of Biological Study Career Connection Forensic Scientist Key Terms Chapter Summary 1.1 The Science of Biology 1.2 Themes and Concepts of Biology Visual Connection Questions Review Questions Critical Thinking Questions
Chapter 2 The Chemical Foundation of Life Introduction Chapter Outline 2.1 Atoms, Isotopes, Ions, and Molecules: The Building Blocks The Structure of the Atom Atomic Number and Mass Visual Connection Isotopes Evolution Connection Carbon Dating Link to Learning The Periodic Table Electron Shells and the Bohr Model Visual Connection Electron Orbitals Link to Learning Chemical Reactions and Molecules Ions and Ionic Bonds Covalent Bonds and Other Bonds and Interactions Link to Learning Polar Covalent Bonds Nonpolar Covalent Bonds Hydrogen Bonds and Van Der Waals Interactions Career Connection Pharmaceutical Chemist 2.2 Water Water's Polarity Water's States: Gas, Liquid, and Solid Link to Learning Water's High Heat Capacity Water's Heat of Vaporization Water's Solvent Properties Water's Cohesive and Adhesive Properties pH, Buffers, Acids, and Bases Link to Learning Link to Learning 2.3 Carbon Hydrocarbons Hydrocarbon Chains Hydrocarbon Rings Isomers Visual Connection Enantiomers Functional Groups Key Terms Chapter Summary 2.1 Atoms, Isotopes, Ions, and Molecules: The Building Blocks 2.2 Water 2.3 Carbon Visual Connection Questions Review Questions Critical Thinking Questions
Chapter 3 Biological Macromolecules Introduction Chapter Outline 3.1 Synthesis of Biological Macromolecules Dehydration Synthesis Hydrolysis Link to Learning 3.2 Carbohydrates Molecular Structures Monosaccharides Visual Connection Disaccharides Polysaccharides Career Connection Registered Dietitian Benefits of Carbohydrates Link to Learning 3.3 Lipids Fats and Oils Trans Fats Omega Fatty Acids Waxes Phospholipids Steroids Link to Learning 3.4 Proteins Types and Functions of Proteins Amino Acids Visual Connection Link to Learning Evolution Connection The Evolutionary Significance of Cytochrome c Protein Structure Primary Structure Secondary Structure Tertiary Structure Quaternary Structure Denaturation and Protein Folding Link to Learning 3.5 Nucleic Acids DNA and RNA DNA Double-Helix Structure Visual Connection RNA Link to Learning Key Terms Chapter Summary 3.1 Synthesis of Biological Macromolecules 3.2 Carbohydrates 3.3 Lipids 3.4 Proteins 3.5 Nucleic Acids Visual Connection Questions Review Questions Critical Thinking Questions
Chapter 4 Cell Structure Introduction Chapter Outline 4.1 Studying Cells Microscopy Light Microscopes Electron Microscopes Link to Learning Cell Theory Career Connection Cytotechnologist 4.2 Prokaryotic Cells Components of Prokaryotic Cells Career Connection Microbiologist Cell Size Visual Connection 4.3 Eukaryotic Cells Visual Connection The Plasma Membrane The Cytoplasm The Nucleus The Nuclear Envelope Chromatin and Chromosomes The Nucleolus Ribosomes Mitochondria Peroxisomes Vesicles and Vacuoles Animal Cells versus Plant Cells The Centrosome Lysosomes The Cell Wall Chloroplasts Evolution Connection Endosymbiosis The Central Vacuole 4.4 The Endomembrane System and Proteins Visual Connection The Endoplasmic Reticulum Rough ER Smooth ER Link to Learning Career Connection Cardiologist The Golgi Apparatus Career Connection Geneticist Lysosomes 4.5 The Cytoskeleton Microfilaments Link to Learning Intermediate Filaments Microtubules Flagella and Cilia 4.6 Connections between Cells and Cellular Activities Extracellular Matrix of Animal Cells Intercellular Junctions Plasmodesmata Tight Junctions Desmosomes Gap Junctions Link to Learning Key Terms Chapter Summary 4.1 Studying Cells 4.2 Prokaryotic Cells 4.3 Eukaryotic Cells 4.4 The Endomembrane System and Proteins 4.5 The Cytoskeleton 4.6 Connections between Cells and Cellular Activities Visual Connection Questions Review Questions Critical Thinking Questions
Chapter 5 Structure and Function of Plasma Membranes Introduction Chapter Outline 5.1 Components and Structure Fluid Mosaic Model Phospholipids Proteins Carbohydrates Evolution Connection How Viruses Infect Specific Organs Membrane Fluidity Link to Learning Career Connection Immunologist 5.2 Passive Transport Selective Permeability Diffusion Factors That Affect Diffusion Facilitated transport Channels Carrier Proteins Osmosis Mechanism Tonicity Hypotonic Solutions Hypertonic Solutions Isotonic Solutions Visual Connection Link to Learning Tonicity in Living Systems 5.3 Active Transport Electrochemical Gradient Visual Connection Moving Against a Gradient Carrier Proteins for Active Transport Primary Active Transport Link to Learning Secondary Active Transport (Co-transport) Visual Connection 5.4 Bulk Transport Endocytosis Phagocytosis Pinocytosis Receptor-mediated Endocytosis Link to Learning Exocytosis Key Terms Chapter Summary 5.1 Components and Structure 5.2 Passive Transport 5.3 Active Transport 5.4 Bulk Transport Visual Connection Questions Review Questions Critical Thinking Questions
Chapter 6 Metabolism Introduction Chapter Outline 6.1 Energy and Metabolism Carbohydrate Metabolism Metabolic Pathways Evolution Connection Evolution of Metabolic Pathways Anabolic and Catabolic Pathways 6.2 Potential, Kinetic, Free, and Activation Energy Energy Types Link to Learning Free Energy Endergonic Reactions and Exergonic Reactions Visual Connection Activation Energy Link to Learning Visual Connection 6.3 The Laws of Thermodynamics The First Law of Thermodynamics The Second Law of Thermodynamics Scientific Method Connection Transfer of Energy and the Resulting Entropy 6.4 ATP: Adenosine Triphosphate Visual Connection Link to Learning 6.5 Enzymes Enzyme Active Site and Substrate Specificity Induced Fit and Enzyme Function Link to Learning Metabolism Control Through Enzyme Regulation Molecular Regulation of Enzymes Everyday Connection Drug Discovery by Looking for Inhibitors of Key Enzymes in Specific Pathways Enzyme Compartmentalization Feedback Inhibition in Metabolic Pathways Key Terms Chapter Summary 6.1 Energy and Metabolism 6.2 Potential, Kinetic, Free, and Activation Energy 6.3 The Laws of Thermodynamics 6.4 ATP: Adenosine Triphosphate 6.5 Enzymes Visual Connection Questions Review Questions Critical Thinking Questions
Chapter 7 Cellular Respiration Introduction Chapter Outline 7.1 Energy in Living Systems Electrons and Energy Electron Carriers ATP in Living Systems ATP Structure and Function Energy from ATP Phosphorylation Substrate Phosphorylation Oxidative Phosphorylation Career Connection Mitochondrial Disease Physician 7.2 Glycolysis First Half of Glycolysis (Energy-Requiring Steps) Second Half of Glycolysis (Energy-Releasing Steps) Link to Learning Outcomes of Glycolysis 7.3 Oxidation of Pyruvate and the Citric Acid Cycle Breakdown of Pyruvate Acetyl CoA to CO2 Citric Acid Cycle Steps in the Citric Acid Cycle Link to Learning Products of the Citric Acid Cycle 7.4 Oxidative Phosphorylation Electron Transport Chain Complex I Q and Complex II Complex III Complex IV Chemiosmosis Visual Connection Visual Connection ATP Yield 7.5 Metabolism without Oxygen Anaerobic Cellular Respiration Link to Learning Lactic Acid Fermentation Visual Connection Alcohol Fermentation Other Types of Fermentation 7.6 Connections of Carbohydrate, Protein, and Lipid Metabolic Pathways Connections of Other Sugars to Glucose Metabolism Connections of Proteins to Glucose Metabolism Connections of Lipid and Glucose Metabolisms Evolution Connection Pathways of Photosynthesis and Cellular Metabolism 7.7 Regulation of Cellular Respiration Regulatory Mechanisms Control of Catabolic Pathways Glycolysis Citric Acid Cycle Electron Transport Chain Link to Learning Key Terms Chapter Summary 7.1 Energy in Living Systems 7.2 Glycolysis 7.3 Oxidation of Pyruvate and the Citric Acid Cycle 7.4 Oxidative Phosphorylation 7.5 Metabolism without Oxygen 7.6 Connections of Carbohydrate, Protein, and Lipid Metabolic Pathways 7.7 Regulation of Cellular Respiration Visual Connection Questions Review Questions Critical Thinking Questions
Chapter 8 Photosynthesis Introduction Chapter Outline 8.1 Overview of Photosynthesis Main Structures and Summary of Photosynthesis Basic Photosynthetic Structures Visual Connection The Two Parts of Photosynthesis Link to Learning Everyday Connection Photosynthesis at the Grocery Store 8.2 The Light-Dependent Reactions of Photosynthesis What Is Light Energy? Absorption of Light Understanding Pigments How Light-Dependent Reactions Work Visual Connection Generating an Energy Carrier: ATP Link to Learning 8.3 Using Light Energy to Make Organic Molecules The Calvin Cycle Stage 1: Fixation Visual Connection Stage 2: Reduction Stage 3: Regeneration Link to Learning Evolution Connection Photosynthesis The Energy Cycle Key Terms Chapter Summary 8.1 Overview of Photosynthesis 8.2 The Light-Dependent Reactions of Photosynthesis 8.3 Using Light Energy to Make Organic Molecules Visual Connection Questions Review Questions Critical Thinking Questions
Chapter 9 Cell Communication Introduction Chapter Outline 9.1 Signaling Molecules and Cellular Receptors Forms of Signaling Paracrine Signaling Endocrine Signaling Autocrine Signaling Direct Signaling Across Gap Junctions Types of Receptors Internal receptors Cell-Surface Receptors Evolution Connection How Viruses Recognize a Host Visual Connection Signaling Molecules Small Hydrophobic Ligands Water-Soluble Ligands Other Ligands 9.2 Propagation of the Signal Binding Initiates a Signaling Pathway Visual Connection Link to Learning Methods of Intracellular Signaling Phosphorylation Second Messengers 9.3 Response to the Signal Gene Expression Increase in Cellular Metabolism Cell Growth Career Connection Cancer Biologist Cell Death Termination of the Signal Cascade 9.4 Signaling in Single-Celled Organisms Signaling in Yeast Signaling in Bacteria Visual Connection Visual Connection Link to Learning Evolution Connection Cellular Communication in Yeasts Link to Learning Key Terms Chapter Summary 9.1 Signaling Molecules and Cellular Receptors 9.2 Propagation of the Signal 9.3 Response to the Signal 9.4 Signaling in Single-Celled Organisms Visual Connection Questions Review Questions Critical Thinking Questions
Chapter 10 Cell Reproduction Introduction Chapter Outline 10.1 Cell Division Genomic DNA Eukaryotic Chromosomal Structure and Compaction Link to Learning 10.2 The Cell Cycle Interphase G1 Phase (First Gap) S Phase (Synthesis of DNA) G2 Phase (Second Gap) The Mitotic Phase Link to Learning Karyokinesis (Mitosis) Visual Connection Cytokinesis G0 Phase Scientific Method Connection Determine the Time Spent in Cell-Cycle Stages 10.3 Control of the Cell Cycle Regulation of the Cell Cycle by External Events Regulation at Internal Checkpoints The G1 Checkpoint The G2 Checkpoint The M Checkpoint Link to Learning Regulator Molecules of the Cell Cycle Positive Regulation of the Cell Cycle Negative Regulation of the Cell Cycle Visual Connection 10.4 Cancer and the Cell Cycle Proto-oncogenes Tumor Suppressor Genes Visual Connection Link to Learning 10.5 Prokaryotic Cell Division Binary Fission Evolution Connection Mitotic Spindle Apparatus Key Terms Chapter Summary 10.1 Cell Division 10.2 The Cell Cycle 10.3 Control of the Cell Cycle 10.4 Cancer and the Cell Cycle 10.5 Prokaryotic Cell Division Visual Connection Questions Review Questions Critical Thinking Questions
Chapter 11 Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction Introduction Chapter Outline 11.1 The Process of Meiosis Meiosis I Prophase I Prometaphase I Metaphase I Anaphase I Telophase I and Cytokinesis Link to Learning Meiosis II Prophase II Prometaphase II Metaphase II Anaphase II Telophase II and Cytokinesis Comparing Meiosis and Mitosis Evolution Connection The Mystery of the Evolution of Meiosis Link to Learning 11.2 Sexual Reproduction Evolution Connection The Red Queen Hypothesis Life Cycles of Sexually Reproducing Organisms Visual Connection Key Terms Chapter Summary 11.1 The Process of Meiosis 11.2 Sexual Reproduction Visual Connection Questions Review Questions Critical Thinking Questions
Chapter 12 Mendel's Experiments and Heredity Introduction Chapter Outline 12.1 Mendel's Experiments and the Laws of Probability Mendel's Model System Mendelian Crosses Garden Pea Characteristics Revealed the Basics of Heredity Probability Basics The Product Rule and Sum Rule 12.2 Characteristics and Traits Phenotypes and Genotypes Dominant and Recessive Alleles The Punnett Square Approach for a Monohybrid Cross The Test Cross Distinguishes the Dominant Phenotype Visual Connection Visual Connection Alternatives to Dominance and Recessiveness Incomplete Dominance Codominance Multiple Alleles Evolution Connection Multiple Alleles Confer Drug Resistance in the Malaria Parasite X-Linked Traits Visual Connection Human Sex-linked Disorders Link to Learning Lethality 12.3 Laws of Inheritance Pairs of Unit Factors, or Genes Alleles Can Be Dominant or Recessive Equal Segregation of Alleles Independent Assortment Visual Connection Forked-Line Method Probability Method Rules for Multihybrid Fertilization Linked Genes Violate the Law of Independent Assortment Scientific Method Connection Testing the Hypothesis of Independent Assortment Epistasis Link to Learning Link to Learning Key Terms Chapter Summary 12.1 Mendel's Experiments and the Laws of Probability 12.2 Characteristics and Traits 12.3 Laws of Inheritance Visual Connection Questions Review Questions Critical Thinking Questions
Chapter 13 Modern Understandings of Inheritance Introduction Chapter Outline 13.1 Chromosomal Theory and Genetic Linkage Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance Genetic Linkage and Distances Homologous Recombination Visual Connection Genetic Maps Visual Connection Link to Learning Mendel's Mapped Traits 13.2 Chromosomal Basis of Inherited Disorders Chromosome Identification Career Connection Geneticists Use Karyograms to Identify Chromosomal Aberrations Chromosome Number Disorders Visual Connection Aneuploidy Link to Learning Polyploidy Sex Chromosome Nondisjunction in Humans Duplications and Deletions Chromosomal Structural Rearrangements Chromosome Inversions Evolution Connection The Chromosome 18 Inversion Translocations Key Terms Chapter Summary 13.1 Chromosomal Theory and Genetic Linkage 13.2 Chromosomal Basis of Inherited Disorders Visual Connection Questions Review Questions Critical Thinking Questions
Chapter 14 DNA Structure and Function Introduction Chapter Outline 14.1 Historical Basis of Modern Understanding Link to Learning Career Connection Forensic Scientist 14.2 DNA Structure and Sequencing Visual Connection DNA Sequencing Techniques Link to Learning Link to Learning Evolution Connection Neanderthal Genome: How Are We Related? Link to Learning DNA Packaging in Cells Visual Connection 14.3 Basics of DNA Replication Link to Learning 14.4 DNA Replication in Prokaryotes Visual Connection Link to Learning 14.5 DNA Replication in Eukaryotes Telomere replication Telomerase and Aging 14.6 DNA Repair Visual Connection Key Terms Chapter Summary 14.1 Historical Basis of Modern Understanding 14.2 DNA Structure and Sequencing 14.3 Basics of DNA Replication 14.4 DNA Replication in Prokaryotes 14.5 DNA Replication in Eukaryotes 14.6 DNA Repair Visual Connection Questions Review Questions Critical Thinking Questions
Chapter 15 Genes and Proteins Introduction Chapter Outline 15.1 The Genetic Code The Central Dogma: DNA Encodes RNA; RNA Encodes Protein The Genetic Code Is Degenerate and Universal Link to Learning Scientific Method Connection Which Has More DNA: A Kiwi or a Strawberry? 15.2 Prokaryotic Transcription Initiation of Transcription in Prokaryotes Prokaryotic RNA Polymerase Prokaryotic Promoters Link to Learning Elongation and Termination in Prokaryotes Prokaryotic Termination Signals Link to Learning 15.3 Eukaryotic Transcription Initiation of Transcription in Eukaryotes The Three Eukaryotic RNA Polymerases RNA Polymerase II Promoters and Transcription Factors Visual Connection Promoter Structures for RNA Polymerases I and III Evolution Connection The Evolution of Promoters Eukaryotic Elongation and Termination 15.4 RNA Processing in Eukaryotes mRNA Processing Evolution Connection RNA Editing in Trypanosomes 5' Capping 3' Poly-A Tail Pre-mRNA Splicing Visual Connection Link to Learning Processing of tRNAs and rRNAs 15.5 Ribosomes and Protein Synthesis The Protein Synthesis Machinery Link to Learning Ribosomes tRNAs Aminoacyl tRNA Synthetases The Mechanism of Protein Synthesis Initiation of Translation Translation, Elongation, and Termination Visual Connection Protein Folding, Modification, and Targeting Key Terms Chapter Summary 15.1 The Genetic Code 15.2 Prokaryotic Transcription 15.3 Eukaryotic Transcription 15.4 RNA Processing in Eukaryotes 15.5 Ribosomes and Protein Synthesis Visual Connection Questions Review Questions Critical Thinking Questions
Chapter 16 Gene Expression Introduction Chapter Outline 16.1 Regulation of Gene Expression Prokaryotic versus Eukaryotic Gene Expression Evolution Connection Evolution of Gene Regulation 16.2 Prokaryotic Gene Regulation The trp Operon: A Repressible Operon Link to Learning Catabolite Activator Protein (CAP): A Transcriptional Activator The lac Operon: An Inducible Operon Visual Connection Link to Learning 16.3 Eukaryotic Epigenetic Gene Regulation Epigenetic Control: Regulating Access to Genes within the Chromosome Visual Connection Link to Learning 16.4 Eukaryotic Transcription Gene Regulation Link to Learning The Promoter and the Transcription Machinery Enhancers and Transcription Turning Genes Off: Transcriptional Repressors 16.5 Eukaryotic Post-transcriptional Gene Regulation RNA Splicing, the First Stage of Post-transcriptional Control Evolution Connection Alternative RNA Splicing Link to Learning Control of RNA Stability RNA Stability and microRNAs 16.6 Eukaryotic Translational and Post-translational Gene Regulation The Initiation Complex and Translation Rate Visual Connection Chemical Modifications, Protein Activity, and Longevity 16.7 Cancer and Gene Regulation Cancer: Disease of Altered Gene Expression Tumor Suppressor Genes, Oncogenes, and Cancer Link to Learning Cancer and Epigenetic Alterations Cancer and Transcriptional Control Cancer and Post-transcriptional Control Cancer and Translational/Post-translational Control New Drugs to Combat Cancer: Targeted Therapies Career Connection Clinical Trial Coordinator Key Terms Chapter Summary 16.1 Regulation of Gene Expression 16.2 Prokaryotic Gene Regulation 16.3 Eukaryotic Epigenetic Gene Regulation 16.4 Eukaryotic Transcription Gene Regulation 16.5 Eukaryotic Post-transcriptional Gene Regulation 16.6 Eukaryotic Translational and Post-translational Gene Regulation 16.7 Cancer and Gene Regulation Visual Connection Questions Review Questions Critical Thinking Questions
Chapter 17 Biotechnology and Genomics Introduction Chapter Outline 17.1 Biotechnology Basic Techniques to Manipulate Genetic Material (DNA and RNA) DNA and RNA Extraction Gel Electrophoresis Nucleic Acid Fragment Amplification by Polymerase Chain Reaction Link to Learning Hybridization, Southern Blotting, and Northern Blotting Molecular Cloning Recombinant DNA Molecules Visual Connection Link to Learning Cellular Cloning Reproductive Cloning Visual Connection Genetic Engineering Gene Targeting Biotechnology in Medicine and Agriculture Genetic Diagnosis and Gene Therapy Production of Vaccines, Antibiotics, and Hormones Transgenic Animals Transgenic Plants Transformation of Plants Using Agrobacterium tumefaciens The Organic Insecticide Bacillus thuringiensis Flavr Savr Tomato 17.2 Mapping Genomes Genetic Maps Physical Maps Genetic and Physical Maps Integration Scientific Method Connection How to Use a Genome Map Viewer Link to Learning 17.3 Whole-Genome Sequencing Strategies Used in Sequencing Projects Early Strategies: Shotgun Sequencing and Pair-Wise End Sequencing Next-generation Sequencing Evolution Connection Comparing Sequences Use of Whole-Genome Sequences of Model Organisms Link to Learning Genome Sequence Uses 17.4 Applying Genomics Predicting Disease Risk at the Individual Level Visual Connection Pharmacogenomics and Toxicogenomics Microbial Genomics: Metagenomics Microbial Genomics: Creation of New Biofuels Mitochondrial Genomics Genomics in Agriculture 17.5 Genomics and Proteomics Basic Techniques in Protein Analysis Cancer Proteomics Key Terms Chapter Summary 17.1 Biotechnology 17.2 Mapping Genomes 17.3 Whole-Genome Sequencing 17.4 Applying Genomics 17.5 Genomics and Proteomics Visual Connection Questions Review Questions Critical Thinking Questions
Chapter 18 Evolution and the Origin of Species Introduction Chapter Outline 18.1 Understanding Evolution Charles Darwin and Natural Selection Career Connection Field Biologist Processes and Patterns of Evolution Evidence of Evolution Fossils Anatomy and Embryology Link to Learning Biogeography Molecular Biology Misconceptions of Evolution Link to Learning Evolution Is Just a Theory Individuals Evolve Evolution Explains the Origin of Life Organisms Evolve on Purpose 18.2 Formation of New Species Species and the Ability to Reproduce Speciation Allopatric Speciation Adaptive Radiation Link to Learning Sympatric Speciation Visual Connection Reproductive Isolation Habitat Influence on Speciation 18.3 Reconnection and Speciation Rates Reconnection Visual Connection Varying Rates of Speciation Visual Connection Link to Learning Key Terms Chapter Summary 18.1 Understanding Evolution 18.2 Formation of New Species 18.3 Reconnection and Speciation Rates Visual Connection Questions Review Questions Critical Thinking Questions
Chapter 19 The Evolution of Populations Introduction Chapter Outline 19.1 Population Evolution Everyday Connection Evolution and Flu Vaccines Population Genetics Hardy-Weinberg Principle of Equilibrium Visual Connection Link to Learning 19.2 Population Genetics Genetic Variance Link to Learning Genetic Drift Visual Connection Link to Learning Link to Learning Scientific Method Connection Testing the Bottleneck Effect Gene Flow Mutation Nonrandom Mating Environmental Variance 19.3 Adaptive Evolution Stabilizing Selection Directional Selection Link to Learning Diversifying Selection Visual Connection Frequency-Dependent Selection Sexual Selection Link to Learning No Perfect Organism Key Terms Chapter Summary 19.1 Population Evolution 19.2 Population Genetics 19.3 Adaptive Evolution Visual Connection Questions Review Questions Critical Thinking Questions
Chapter 20 Phylogenies and the History of Life Introduction Chapter Outline 20.1 Organizing Life on Earth Phylogenetic Trees Limitations of Phylogenetic Trees Link to Learning Classification Levels Visual Connection Link to Learning 20.2 Determining Evolutionary Relationships Two Options for Similarities Misleading Appearances Link to Learning Molecular Comparisons Evolution Connection Why Does Phylogeny Matter? Building Phylogenetic Trees Visual Connection Visual Connection Shared Characteristics Choosing the Right Relationships Link to Learning 20.3 Perspectives on the Phylogenetic Tree Limitations to the Classic Model Horizontal Gene Transfer HGT in Prokaryotes HGT in Eukaryotes Genome Fusion and Eukaryote Evolution Web and Network Models Ring of Life Models Key Terms Chapter Summary 20.1 Organizing Life on Earth 20.2 Determining Evolutionary Relationships 20.3 Perspectives on the Phylogenetic Tree Visual Connection Questions Review Questions Critical Thinking Questions
Chapter 21 Viruses Introduction Chapter Outline 21.1 Viral Evolution, Morphology, and Classification Discovery and Detection Evolution of Viruses Viral Morphology Morphology Visual Connection Types of Nucleic Acid The Challenge of Virus Classification Past Systems of Classification Baltimore Classification 21.2 Virus Infections and Hosts Steps of Virus Infections Attachment Link to Learning Entry Replication and Assembly Egress Visual Connection Link to Learning Different Hosts and Their Viruses Bacteriophages Visual Connection Plant Viruses Animal Viruses Link to Learning 21.3 Prevention and Treatment of Viral Infections Vaccines for Prevention Link to Learning Vaccines and Antiviral Drugs for Treatment Everyday Connection Applied Virology: 21.4 Other Acellular Entities: Prions and Viroids Prions Viroids Career Connection Virologist Key Terms Chapter Summary 21.1 Viral Evolution, Morphology, and Classification 21.2 Virus Infections and Hosts 21.3 Prevention and Treatment of Viral Infections 21.4 Other Acellular Entities: Prions and Viroids Visual Connection Questions Review Questions Critical Thinking Questions
Chapter 22 Prokaryotes: Bacteria and Archaea Introduction Chapter Outline 22.1 Prokaryotic Diversity Prokaryotes, the First Inhabitants of Earth Microbial Mats Stromatolites The Ancient Atmosphere Microbes Are Adaptable: Life in Moderate and Extreme Environments Prokaryotes in the Dead Sea Unculturable Prokaryotes and the Viable-but-Non-Culturable State The Ecology of Biofilms Visual Connection 22.2 Structure of Prokaryotes: Bacteria and Archaea The Prokaryotic Cell The Plasma Membrane of Prokaryotes The Cell Wall of Prokaryotes Visual Connection Reproduction Evolution Connection The Evolution of Prokaryotes 22.3 Prokaryotic Metabolism Needs of Prokaryotes Macronutrients Micronutrients The Ways in Which Prokaryotes Obtain Energy The Ways in Which Prokaryotes Obtain Carbon Role of Prokaryotes in Ecosystems Prokaryotes and the Carbon Cycle Prokaryotes and the Nitrogen Cycle Visual Connection 22.4 Bacterial Diseases in Humans Long History of Bacterial Disease The Plague of Athens Bubonic Plagues Link to Learning Migration of Diseases to New Populations Emerging and Re-emerging Diseases Foodborne Diseases Biofilms and Disease Antibiotics: Are We Facing a Crisis? Link to Learning One of the Superbugs: MRSA Career Connection Epidemiologist 22.5 Beneficial Prokaryotes Cooperation between Bacteria and Eukaryotes: Nitrogen Fixation Everyday Connection Microbes on the Human Body Early Biotechnology: Cheese, Bread, Wine, Beer, and Yogurt Using Prokaryotes to Clean up Our Planet: Bioremediation Key Terms Chapter Summary 22.1 Prokaryotic Diversity 22.2 Structure of Prokaryotes: Bacteria and Archaea 22.3 Prokaryotic Metabolism 22.4 Bacterial Diseases in Humans 22.5 Beneficial Prokaryotes Visual Connection Questions Review Questions Critical Thinking Questions
Chapter 23 Protists Introduction Chapter Outline 23.1 Eukaryotic Origins Characteristics of Eukaryotes Endosymbiosis and the Evolution of Eukaryotes Prokaryotic Metabolism Endosymbiotic Theory Mitochondria Plastids Visual Connection Evolution Connection Secondary Endosymbiosis in Chlorarachniophytes 23.2 Characteristics of Protists Cell Structure Metabolism Motility Life Cycles Habitats 23.3 Groups of Protists Archaeplastida Glaucophytes Red Algae Green Algae: Chlorophytes and Charophytes Link to Learning Amoebozoa Gymnomoebae Slime Molds Link to Learning Opisthokonta Rhizaria Foraminiferans Radiolarians Cercozoa Chromalveolata Alveolates: Dinoflagellates, Apicomplexians, and Ciliates Link to Learning Visual Connection Stramenopiles: Diatoms, Brown Algae, Golden Algae and Oomycetes Visual Connection Excavata Diplomonads Parabasalids Link to Learning Euglenozoans Link to Learning 23.4 Ecology of Protists Primary Producers/Food Sources Human Pathogens Plasmodium Species Link to Learning Trypanosomes Link to Learning Plant Parasites Protist Decomposers Key Terms Chapter Summary 23.1 Eukaryotic Origins 23.2 Characteristics of Protists 23.3 Groups of Protists 23.4 Ecology of Protists Visual Connection Questions Review Questions Critical Thinking Questions
Chapter 24 Fungi Introduction Chapter Outline 24.1 Characteristics of Fungi Career Connection Mycologist Cell Structure and Function Growth Nutrition Reproduction Asexual Reproduction Sexual Reproduction Link to Learning 24.2 Classifications of Fungi Chytridiomycota: The Chytrids Zygomycota: The Conjugated Fungi Ascomycota: The Sac Fungi Visual Connection Basidiomycota: The Club Fungi Visual Connection Asexual Ascomycota and Basidiomycota Glomeromycota 24.3 Ecology of Fungi Habitats Decomposers and Recyclers Mutualistic Relationships Fungus/Plant Mutualism Visual Connection Evolution Connection Coevolution of Land Plants and Mycorrhizae Lichens Link to Learning Link to Learning Fungus/Animal Mutualism Fungivores 24.4 Fungal Parasites and Pathogens Plant Parasites and Pathogens Animal and Human Parasites and Pathogens Scientific Method Connection Dutch Elm Disease 24.5 Importance of Fungi in Human Life Key Terms Chapter Summary 24.1 Characteristics of Fungi 24.2 Classifications of Fungi 24.3 Ecology of Fungi 24.4 Fungal Parasites and Pathogens 24.5 Importance of Fungi in Human Life Visual Connection Questions Review Questions Critical Thinking Questions
Chapter 25 Seedless Plants Introduction Chapter Outline 25.1 Early Plant Life Evolution Connection Algae and Evolutionary Paths to Photosynthesis Link to Learning Plant Adaptations to Life on Land Alternation of Generations Sporangia in Seedless Plants Gametangia in Seedless Plants Apical Meristems Additional Land Plant Adaptations Evolution of Land Plants Career Connection Paleobotanist The Major Divisions of Land Plants Visual Connection 25.2 Green Algae: Precursors of Land Plants Streptophytes Reproduction of Green Algae Charophytes 25.3 Bryophytes Liverworts Hornworts Mosses Visual Connection 25.4 Seedless Vascular Plants Vascular Tissue: Xylem and Phloem Roots: Support for the Plant Leaves, Sporophylls, and Strobili Ferns and Other Seedless Vascular Plants Phylum Lycopodiophyta: Club Mosses Phylum Monilophyta: Class Equisetopsida (Horsetails) Phylum Monilophyta: Class Psilotopsida (Whisk Ferns) Phylum Monilophyta: Class Polypodiopsida (True Ferns) Visual Connection Link to Learning Career Connection Landscape Designer The Importance of Seedless Plants Link to Learning Key Terms Chapter Summary 25.1 Early Plant Life 25.2 Green Algae: Precursors of Land Plants 25.3 Bryophytes 25.4 Seedless Vascular Plants Visual Connection Questions Review Questions Critical Thinking Questions
Chapter 26 Seed Plants Introduction Chapter Outline 26.1 Evolution of Seed Plants Evolution of Gymnosperms Seeds and Pollen as an Evolutionary Adaptation to Dry Land Evolution of Angiosperms Flowers and Fruits as an Evolutionary Adaptation Evolution Connection Building Phylogenetic Trees with Analysis of DNA Sequence Alignments 26.2 Gymnosperms Life Cycle of a Conifer Visual Connection Link to Learning Diversity of Gymnosperms Conifers (Coniferophyta) Cycads Ginkgophytes Gnetophytes Link to Learning 26.3 Angiosperms Flowers The Life Cycle of an Angiosperm Visual Connection Fruit Diversity of Angiosperms Basal Angiosperms Monocots Eudicots 26.4 The Role of Seed Plants Animals and Plants: Herbivory Animals and Plants: Pollination Link to Learning Scientific Method Connection Testing Attraction of Flies by Rotting Flesh Smell The Importance of Seed Plants in Human Life Career Connection Ethnobotanist Biodiversity of Plants Key Terms Chapter Summary 26.1 Evolution of Seed Plants 26.2 Gymnosperms 26.3 Angiosperms 26.4 The Role of Seed Plants Visual Connection Questions Review Questions Critical Thinking Questions
Chapter 27 Introduction to Animal Diversity Introduction Chapter Outline 27.1 Features of the Animal Kingdom Complex Tissue Structure Link to Learning Animal Reproduction and Development Processes of Animal Reproduction and Embryonic Development Link to Learning The Role of Homeobox (Hox) Genes in Animal Development Visual Connection 27.2 Features Used to Classify Animals Visual Connection Animal Characterization Based on Body Symmetry Link to Learning Animal Characterization Based on Features of Embryological Development Visual Connection Presence or Absence of a Coelom Embryonic Development of the Mouth Evolution Connection The Evolution of the Coelom 27.3 Animal Phylogeny Constructing an Animal Phylogenetic Tree Link to Learning Modern Advances in Phylogenetic Understanding Come from Molecular Analyses Link to Learning 27.4 The Evolutionary History of the Animal Kingdom Pre-Cambrian Animal Life The Cambrian Explosion of Animal Life Link to Learning Post-Cambrian Evolution and Mass Extinctions Link to Learning Career Connection Paleontologist Key Terms Chapter Summary 27.1 Features of the Animal Kingdom 27.2 Features Used to Classify Animals 27.3 Animal Phylogeny 27.4 The Evolutionary History of the Animal Kingdom Visual Connection Questions Review Questions Critical Thinking Questions
Chapter 28 Invertebrates Introduction Chapter Outline 28.1 Phylum Porifera Morphology of Sponges Link to Learning Visual Connection Link to Learning Link to Learning Physiological Processes in Sponges Digestion Reproduction Locomotion Link to Learning 28.2 Phylum Cnidaria Link to Learning Link to Learning Class Anthozoa Class Scyphozoa Class Cubozoa Class Hydrozoa 28.3 Superphylum Lophotrochozoa: Flatworms, Rotifers, and Nemerteans Phylum Platyhelminthes Physiological Processes of Flatworms Diversity of Flatworms Phylum Rotifera Link to Learning Phylum Nemertea Morphology Link to Learning Digestive System Nervous System Reproduction 28.4 Superphylum Lophotrochozoa: Molluscs and Annelids Phylum Mollusca Visual Connection Classification of Phylum Mollusca Link to Learning Everyday Connection Can Snail Venom Be Used as a Pharmacological Painkiller? Phylum Annelida Morphology Anatomy Link to Learning Classification of Phylum Annelida 28.5 Superphylum Ecdysozoa: Nematodes and Tardigrades Superphylum Ecdysozoa Phylum Nematoda Morphology Excretory System Nervous system Reproduction Everyday Connection C. elegans: The Model System for Linking Developmental Studies with Genetics Parasitic Nematodes Phylum Tardigrada Morphology and Physiology Reproduction 28.6 Superphylum Ecdysozoa: Arthropods Phylum Arthropoda Morphology Subphylum Chelicerata Link to Learning Subphylum Myriapoda Subphylum Crustacea Subphylum Hexapoda Visual Connection 28.7 Superphylum Deuterostomia Phylum Echinodermata Morphology and Anatomy Water Vascular and Hemal Systems Nervous System Digestive and Excretory Systems Reproduction Classes of Echinoderms Link to Learning Phylum Chordata Key Terms Chapter Summary 28.1 Phylum Porifera 28.2 Phylum Cnidaria 28.3 Superphylum Lophotrochozoa: Flatworms, Rotifers, and Nemerteans 28.4 Superphylum Lophotrochozoa: Molluscs and Annelids 28.5 Superphylum Ecdysozoa: Nematodes and Tardigrades 28.6 Superphylum Ecdysozoa: Arthropods 28.7 Superphylum Deuterostomia Visual Connection Questions Review Questions Critical Thinking Questions
Chapter 29 Vertebrates Introduction Chapter Outline 29.1 Chordates Characteristics of Chordata Visual Connection Link to Learning Chordates and the Evolution of Vertebrates Cephalochordata Urochordata Subphylum Vertebrata (Craniata) 29.2 Fishes Jawless Fishes: Superclass Agnatha Class Myxini: Hagfishes Class Petromyzontida: Lampreys Gnathostomes: Jawed Fishes Class Chondrichthyes: Cartilaginous Fishes Osteichthyes: Bony Fishes 29.3 Amphibians Link to Learning Characteristics of Amphibians Evolution of Amphibians Modern Amphibians Urodela: Salamanders Link to Learning Anura: Frogs Apoda: Caecilians Evolution Connection The Paleozoic Era and the Evolution of Vertebrates Link to Learning 29.4 Reptiles Characteristics of Amniotes Visual Connection Evolution of Amniotes Visual Connection Characteristics of Reptiles Evolution of Reptiles Archosaurs: Dinosaurs Archosaurs: Pterosaurs Link to Learning Modern Reptiles Crocodilia Sphenodontia Squamata Testudines 29.5 Birds Characteristics of Birds Evolution of Birds The Evolution of Flight in Birds Career Connection Veterinarian 29.6 Mammals Characteristics of Mammals Evolution of Mammals Living Mammals 29.7 The Evolution of Primates Characteristics of Primates Evolution of Primates Human Evolution Very Early Hominins Early Hominins: Genus Australopithecus A Dead End: Genus Paranthropus Early Hominins: Genus Homo Link to Learning Humans: Homo sapiens Key Terms Chapter Summary 29.1 Chordates 29.2 Fishes 29.3 Amphibians 29.4 Reptiles 29.5 Birds 29.6 Mammals 29.7 The Evolution of Primates Visual Connection Questions Review Questions Critical Thinking Questions
Chapter 30 Plant Form and Physiology Introduction Chapter Outline 30.1 The Plant Body Link to Learning Plant Organ Systems Plant Tissues 30.2 Stems Stem Anatomy Visual Connection Dermal Tissue Vascular Tissue Ground Tissue Growth in Stems Primary Growth Link to Learning Secondary Growth Annual Rings Stem Modifications Link to Learning 30.3 Roots Types of Root Systems Root Growth and Anatomy Root Modifications 30.4 Leaves Structure of a Typical Leaf Leaf Arrangement Leaf Form Leaf Structure and Function Leaf Adaptations Link to Learning Evolution Connection Plant Adaptations in Resource-Deficient Environments Link to Learning 30.5 Transport of Water and Solutes in Plants Water Potential Solute Potential Visual Connection Pressure Potential Gravity Potential Matric Potential Movement of Water and Minerals in the Xylem Visual Connection Control of Transpiration Transportation of Photosynthates in the Phloem Translocation: Transport from Source to Sink 30.6 Plant Sensory Systems and Responses Plant Responses to Light The Phytochrome System and the Red/Far-Red Response Career Connection Horticulturalist The Blue Light Responses Link to Learning Plant Responses to Gravity Growth Responses Auxins Cytokinins Gibberellins Abscisic Acid Ethylene Nontraditional Hormones Plant Responses to Wind and Touch Link to Learning Defense Responses against Herbivores and Pathogens Key Terms Chapter Summary 30.1 The Plant Body 30.2 Stems 30.3 Roots 30.4 Leaves 30.5 Transport of Water and Solutes in Plants 30.6 Plant Sensory Systems and Responses Visual Connection Questions Review Questions Critical Thinking Questions
Chapter 31 Soil and Plant Nutrition Introduction Chapter Outline 31.1 Nutritional Requirements of Plants The Chemical Composition of Plants Essential Nutrients Macronutrients and Micronutrients Link to Learning Everyday Connection Hydroponics 31.2 The Soil Soil Composition Visual Connection Link to Learning Soil Formation Parent Material Climate Topography Biological factors Time Physical Properties of the Soil Visual Connection Career Connection Soil Scientist 31.3 Nutritional Adaptations of Plants Link to Learning Nitrogen Fixation: Root and Bacteria Interactions Visual Connection Mycorrhizae: The Symbiotic Relationship between Fungi and Roots Nutrients from Other Sources Plant Parasites Saprophytes Symbionts Epiphytes Insectivorous Plants Key Terms Chapter Summary 31.1 Nutritional Requirements of Plants 31.2 The Soil 31.3 Nutritional Adaptations of Plants Visual Connection Questions Review Questions Critical Thinking Questions
Chapter 32 Plant Reproduction Introduction Chapter Outline 32.1 Reproductive Development and Structure Sexual Reproduction in Angiosperms Flower Structure Visual Connection Male Gametophyte (The Pollen Grain) Female Gametophyte (The Embryo Sac) Visual Connection Sexual Reproduction in Gymnosperms Male Gametophyte Link to Learning Female Gametophyte Reproductive Process Angiosperms versus Gymnosperms Link to Learning 32.2 Pollination and Fertilization Link to Learning Everyday Connection Incompatibility Genes in Flowers Pollination by Insects Pollination by Bats Pollination by Birds Pollination by Wind Pollination by Water Evolution Connection Pollination by Deception Double Fertilization Development of the Seed Visual Connection Seed Germination Development of Fruit and Fruit Types Fruit and Seed Dispersal 32.3 Asexual Reproduction Natural Methods of Asexual Reproduction Artificial Methods of Asexual Reproduction Grafting Cutting Layering Micropropagation Plant Life Spans Key Terms Chapter Summary 32.1 Reproductive Development and Structure 32.2 Pollination and Fertilization 32.3 Asexual Reproduction Visual Connection Questions Review Questions Critical Thinking Questions
Chapter 33 The Animal Body: Basic Form and Function Introduction Chapter Outline 33.1 Animal Form and Function Body Plans Limits on Animal Size and Shape Limiting Effects of Diffusion on Size and Development Link to Learning Animal Bioenergetics Energy Requirements Related to Body Size Energy Requirements Related to Levels of Activity Energy Requirements Related to Environment Animal Body Planes and Cavities Career Connection Physical Anthropologist 33.2 Animal Primary Tissues Epithelial Tissues Squamous Epithelia Cuboidal Epithelia Columnar Epithelia Transitional Epithelia Visual Connection Connective Tissues Loose/Areolar Connective Tissue Fibrous Connective Tissue Cartilage Bone Adipose Tissue Blood Muscle Tissues Smooth Muscle Skeletal Muscle Cardiac Muscle Nervous Tissues Link to Learning Career Connection Pathologist 33.3 Homeostasis Homeostatic Process Control of Homeostasis Negative Feedback Mechanisms Positive Feedback Loop Visual Connection Set Point Link to Learning Homeostasis: Thermoregulation Link to Learning Endotherms and Ectotherms Heat Conservation and Dissipation Neural Control of Thermoregulation Visual Connection Key Terms Chapter Summary 33.1 Animal Form and Function 33.2 Animal Primary Tissues 33.3 Homeostasis Visual Connection Questions Review Questions Critical Thinking Questions
Chapter 34 Animal Nutrition and the Digestive System Introduction Chapter Outline 34.1 Digestive Systems Herbivores, Omnivores, and Carnivores Invertebrate Digestive Systems Vertebrate Digestive Systems Monogastric: Single-chambered Stomach Avian Evolution Connection Avian Adaptations Ruminants Pseudo-ruminants Parts of the Digestive System Oral Cavity Esophagus Stomach Visual Connection Small Intestine Visual Connection Large Intestine Rectum and Anus Accessory Organs 34.2 Nutrition and Energy Production Food Requirements Link to Learning Everyday Connection Let's Move! Campaign Organic Precursors Essential Nutrients Food Energy and ATP Everyday Connection Obesity 34.3 Digestive System Processes Ingestion Digestion and Absorption Carbohydrates Protein Lipids Vitamins Link to Learning Visual Connection Elimination Common Problems with Elimination Emesis 34.4 Digestive System Regulation Neural Responses to Food Digestive Phases Hormonal Responses to Food Link to Learning Key Terms Chapter Summary 34.1 Digestive Systems 34.2 Nutrition and Energy Production 34.3 Digestive System Processes 34.4 Digestive System Regulation Visual Connection Questions Review Questions Critical Thinking Questions
Chapter 35 The Nervous System Introduction Chapter Outline 35.1 Neurons and Glial Cells Link to Learning Neurons Parts of a Neuron Visual Connection Types of Neurons Everyday Connection Neurogenesis Link to Learning Glia Types of Glia 35.2 How Neurons Communicate Nerve Impulse Transmission within a Neuron Neuronal Charged Membranes Link to Learning Resting Membrane Potential Action Potential Visual Connection Link to Learning Myelin and the Propagation of the Action Potential Synaptic Transmission Chemical Synapse Electrical Synapse Signal Summation Everyday Connection Brain-computer interface Link to Learning Synaptic Plasticity Long-term Potentiation (LTP) Long-term Depression (LTD) 35.3 The Central Nervous System Brain Cerebral Cortex Link to Learning Evolution Connection Cerebral Cortex Basal Ganglia Thalamus Hypothalamus Limbic System Cerebellum Brainstem Spinal Cord 35.4 The Peripheral Nervous System Autonomic Nervous System Visual Connection Sympathetic Nervous System Parasympathetic Nervous System Sensory-Somatic Nervous System 35.5 Nervous System Disorders Neurodegenerative Disorders Alzheimer's Disease Link to Learning Parkinson's Disease Neurodevelopmental Disorders Autism Link to Learning Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Career Connection Neurologist Link to Learning Mental Illnesses Schizophrenia Depression Other Neurological Disorders Epilepsy Stroke Key Terms Chapter Summary 35.1 Neurons and Glial Cells 35.2 How Neurons Communicate 35.3 The Central Nervous System 35.4 The Peripheral Nervous System 35.5 Nervous System Disorders Visual Connection Questions Review Questions Critical Thinking Questions
Chapter 36 Sensory Systems Introduction Chapter Outline 36.1 Sensory Processes Reception Transduction Encoding and Transmission of Sensory Information Perception Scientific Method Connection Just-Noticeable Difference 36.2 Somatosensation Somatosensory Receptors Visual Connection Integration of Signals from Mechanoreceptors Density of Mechanoreceptors Thermoreception Pain Link to Learning 36.3 Taste and Smell Tastes and Odors Reception and Transduction Evolution Connection Pheromones Taste Link to Learning Smell and Taste in the Brain 36.4 Hearing and Vestibular Sensation Sound Reception of Sound Transduction of Sound Visual Connection Link to Learning Higher Processing Vestibular Information Higher Processing Link to Learning 36.5 Vision Light Anatomy of the Eye Visual Connection Link to Learning Transduction of Light Trichromatic Coding Retinal Processing Higher Processing Link to Learning Key Terms Chapter Summary 36.1 Sensory Processes 36.2 Somatosensation 36.3 Taste and Smell 36.4 Hearing and Vestibular Sensation 36.5 Vision Visual Connection Questions Review Questions Critical Thinking Questions
Chapter 37 The Endocrine System Introduction Chapter Outline 37.1 Types of Hormones Lipid-Derived Hormones (or Lipid-soluble Hormones) Amino Acid-Derived Hormones Peptide Hormones Career Connection Endocrinologist 37.2 How Hormones Work Intracellular Hormone Receptors Visual Connection Plasma Membrane Hormone Receptors 37.3 Regulation of Body Processes Hormonal Regulation of the Excretory System Hormonal Regulation of the Reproductive System Regulation of the Male Reproductive System Everyday Connection The Dangers of Synthetic Hormones Regulation of the Female Reproductive System Hormonal Regulation of Metabolism Regulation of Blood Glucose Levels by Insulin and Glucagon Link to Learning Visual Connection Regulation of Blood Glucose Levels by Thyroid Hormones Hormonal Control of Blood Calcium Levels Hormonal Regulation of Growth Hormonal Regulation of Stress Evolution Connection Fight-or-Flight Response Short-term Stress Response Link to Learning Long-term Stress Response 37.4 Regulation of Hormone Production Visual Connection Humoral Stimuli Hormonal Stimuli Neural Stimuli 37.5 Endocrine Glands Hypothalamic-Pituitary Axis Anterior Pituitary Posterior Pituitary Thyroid Gland Parathyroid Glands Adrenal Glands Adrenal Cortex Adrenal Medulla Pancreas Pineal Gland Gonads Organs with Secondary Endocrine Functions Key Terms Chapter Summary 37.1 Types of Hormones 37.2 How Hormones Work 37.3 Regulation of Body Processes 37.4 Regulation of Hormone Production 37.5 Endocrine Glands Visual Connection Questions Review Questions Critical Thinking Questions
Chapter 38 The Musculoskeletal System Introduction Chapter Outline 38.1 Types of Skeletal Systems Hydrostatic Skeleton Exoskeleton Endoskeleton Link to Learning Human Axial Skeleton The Skull The Vertebral Column The Thoracic Cage Human Appendicular Skeleton The Pectoral Girdle The Upper Limb The Pelvic Girdle The Lower Limb Evolution Connection Evolution of Body Design for Locomotion on Land 38.2 Bone Bone Tissue Compact Bone Tissue Visual Connection Spongy Bone Tissue Link to Learning Cell Types in Bones Development of Bone Intramembranous Ossification Endochondral Ossification Growth of Bone Lengthening of Long Bones Thickening of Long Bones Bone Remodeling and Repair Scientific Method Connection Decalcification of Bones 38.3 Joints and Skeletal Movement Classification of Joints on the Basis of Structure Fibrous Joints Cartilaginous Joints Synovial Joints Classification of Joints on the Basis of Function Movement at Synovial Joints Gliding Movement Angular Movement Rotational Movement Special Movements Types of Synovial Joints Planar Joints Hinge Joints Pivot Joints Condyloid Joints Saddle Joints Ball-and-Socket Joints Link to Learning Career Connection Rheumatologist 38.4 Muscle Contraction and Locomotion Skeletal Muscle Fiber Structure Link to Learning Sliding Filament Model of Contraction ATP and Muscle Contraction Link to Learning Visual Connection Link to Learning Regulatory Proteins Excitation-Contraction Coupling Visual Connection Control of Muscle Tension Key Terms Chapter Summary 38.1 Types of Skeletal Systems 38.2 Bone 38.3 Joints and Skeletal Movement 38.4 Muscle Contraction and Locomotion Visual Connection Questions Review Questions Critical Thinking Questions
Chapter 39 The Respiratory System Introduction Chapter Outline 39.1 Systems of Gas Exchange Direct Diffusion Skin and Gills Tracheal Systems Mammalian Systems Visual Connection Lungs: Bronchi and Alveoli Link to Learning Protective Mechanisms 39.2 Gas Exchange across Respiratory Surfaces Basic Principles of Gas Exchange Lung Volumes and Capacities Career Connection Respiratory Therapist Gas Pressure and Respiration Gas Exchange across the Alveoli Visual Connection Link to Learning 39.3 Breathing Types of Breathing Evolution Connection Avian Respiration The Mechanics of Human Breathing Link to Learning The Work of Breathing Surfactant Lung Resistance and Compliance Dead Space: V/Q Mismatch Link to Learning 39.4 Transport of Gases in Human Bodily Fluids Transport of Oxygen in the Blood Hemoglobin Visual Connection Factors That Affect Oxygen Binding Transport of Carbon Dioxide in the Blood Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Key Terms Chapter Summary 39.1 Systems of Gas Exchange 39.2 Gas Exchange across Respiratory Surfaces 39.3 Breathing 39.4 Transport of Gases in Human Bodily Fluids Visual Connection Questions Review Questions Critical Thinking Questions
Chapter 40 The Circulatory System Introduction Chapter Outline 40.1 Overview of the Circulatory System Circulatory System Architecture Circulatory System Variation in Animals 40.2 Components of the Blood The Role of Blood in the Body Red Blood Cells White Blood Cells Platelets and Coagulation Factors Plasma and Serum Evolution Connection Blood Types Related to Proteins on the Surface of the Red Blood Cells Link to Learning 40.3 Mammalian Heart and Blood Vessels Visual Connection Structure of the Heart Visual Connection The Cardiac Cycle Link to Learning Arteries, Veins, and Capillaries 40.4 Blood Flow and Blood Pressure Regulation How Blood Flows Through the Body Visual Connection Link to Learning Evolution Connection Vertebrate Diversity in Blood Circulation Blood Pressure Blood Pressure Regulation Key Terms Chapter Summary 40.1 Overview of the Circulatory System 40.2 Components of the Blood 40.3 Mammalian Heart and Blood Vessels 40.4 Blood Flow and Blood Pressure Regulation Visual Connection Questions Review Questions Critical Thinking Questions
Chapter 41 Osmotic Regulation and Excretion Introduction Chapter Outline 41.1 Osmoregulation and Osmotic Balance Need for Osmoregulation Transport of Electrolytes across Cell Membranes Concept of Osmolality and Milliequivalent Osmoregulators and Osmoconformers Career Connection Dialysis Technician 41.2 The Kidneys and Osmoregulatory Organs Kidneys: The Main Osmoregulatory Organ Kidney Structure Visual Connection Visual Connection Renal Corpuscle Renal Tubule Capillary Network within the Nephron Link to Learning Kidney Function and Physiology Glomerular Filtration Link to Learning Tubular Reabsorption and Secretion Visual Connection Career Connection Nephrologist 41.3 Excretion Systems Contractile Vacuoles in Microorganisms Flame Cells of Planaria and Nephridia of Worms Malpighian Tubules of Insects Link to Learning 41.4 Nitrogenous Wastes Nitrogenous Waste in Terrestrial Animals: The Urea Cycle Evolution Connection Excretion of Nitrogenous Waste Nitrogenous Waste in Birds and Reptiles: Uric Acid Everyday Connection Gout 41.5 Hormonal Control of Osmoregulatory Functions Epinephrine and Norepinephrine Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone Mineralocorticoids Antidiuretic Hormone Atrial Natriuretic Peptide Hormone Key Terms Chapter Summary 41.1 Osmoregulation and Osmotic Balance 41.2 The Kidneys and Osmoregulatory Organs 41.3 Excretion Systems 41.4 Nitrogenous Wastes 41.5 Hormonal Control of Osmoregulatory Functions Visual Connection Questions Review Questions Critical Thinking Questions
Chapter 42 The Immune System Introduction Chapter Outline 42.1 Innate Immune Response Physical and Chemical Barriers Pathogen Recognition Cytokine Release Effect Phagocytosis and Inflammation Link to Learning Natural Killer Cells Complement 42.2 Adaptive Immune Response Antigen-presenting Cells Link to Learning T and B Lymphocytes Visual Connection Helper T Lymphocytes B Lymphocytes Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes Visual Connection Mucosal Surfaces and Immune Tolerance Immunological Memory Visual Connection Mucosal Immune Memory Career Connection Vaccinologist Primary Centers of the Immune System 42.3 Antibodies Antibody Structure Antibody Classes Antibody Functions Affinity, Avidity, and Cross Reactivity Antibodies of the Mucosal Immune System 42.4 Disruptions in the Immune System Immunodeficiency Hypersensitivities Allergies Autoimmunity Key Terms Chapter Summary 42.1 Innate Immune Response 42.2 Adaptive Immune Response 42.3 Antibodies 42.4 Disruptions in the Immune System Visual Connection Questions Review Questions Critical Thinking Questions
Chapter 43 Animal Reproduction and Development Introduction Chapter Outline 43.1 Reproduction Methods Asexual Reproduction Fission Budding Link to Learning Fragmentation Parthenogenesis Sexual Reproduction Hermaphroditism Sex Determination 43.2 Fertilization External Fertilization Internal Fertilization The Evolution of Reproduction 43.3 Human Reproductive Anatomy and Gametogenesis Human Reproductive Anatomy Male Reproductive Anatomy Visual Connection Female Reproductive Anatomy Sexual Response during Intercourse Gametogenesis (Spermatogenesis and Oogenesis) Spermatogenesis Link to Learning Oogenesis 43.4 Hormonal Control of Human Reproduction Male Hormones Female Hormones The Ovarian Cycle and the Menstrual Cycle Visual Connection Visual Connection Menopause Career Connection Reproductive Endocrinologist 43.5 Human Pregnancy and Birth Human Gestation Link to Learning Labor and Birth Contraception and Birth Control Infertility 43.6 Fertilization and Early Embryonic Development Fertilization Cleavage and Blastula Stage Link to Learning Gastrulation Everyday Connection Are Designer Babies in Our Future? 43.7 Organogenesis and Vertebrate Formation Organogenesis Vertebrate Axis Formation Key Terms Chapter Summary 43.1 Reproduction Methods 43.2 Fertilization 43.3 Human Reproductive Anatomy and Gametogenesis 43.4 Hormonal Control of Human Reproduction 43.5 Human Pregnancy and Birth 43.6 Fertilization and Early Embryonic Development 43.7 Organogenesis and Vertebrate Formation Visual Connection Questions Review Questions Critical Thinking Questions
Chapter 44 Ecology and the Biosphere Introduction Chapter Outline 44.1 The Scope of Ecology Link to Learning Levels of Ecological Study Organismal Ecology Population Ecology Community Ecology Ecosystem Ecology Career Connection Ecologist Link to Learning 44.2 Biogeography Biogeography Link to Learning Energy Sources Visual Connection Temperature Water Inorganic Nutrients and Soil Other Aquatic Factors Other Terrestrial Factors Abiotic Factors Influencing Plant Growth 44.3 Terrestrial Biomes Visual Connection Tropical Wet Forest Savannas Subtropical Deserts Chaparral Temperate Grasslands Temperate Forests Boreal Forests Arctic Tundra Link to Learning 44.4 Aquatic Biomes Abiotic Factors Influencing Aquatic Biomes Visual Connection Marine Biomes Ocean Coral Reefs Link to Learning Evolution Connection Global Decline of Coral Reefs Estuaries: Where the Ocean Meets Fresh Water Freshwater Biomes Lakes and Ponds Rivers and Streams Wetlands 44.5 Climate and the Effects of Global Climate Change Climate and Weather Global Climate Change Evidence for Global Climate Change Current and Past Drivers of Global Climate Change Documented Results of Climate Change: Past and Present Geological Climate Change Link to Learning Present Climate Change Key Terms Chapter Summary 44.1 The Scope of Ecology 44.2 Biogeography 44.3 Terrestrial Biomes 44.4 Aquatic Biomes 44.5 Climate and the Effects of Global Climate Change Visual Connection Questions Review Questions Critical Thinking Questions
Chapter 45 Population and Community Ecology Introduction Chapter Outline 45.1 Population Demography Population Size and Density Visual Connection Population Research Methods Species Distribution Demography Life Tables Survivorship Curves 45.2 Life Histories and Natural Selection Life History Patterns and Energy Budgets Parental Care and Fecundity Early versus Late Reproduction Single versus Multiple Reproductive Events Link to Learning Evolution Connection Energy Budgets, Reproductive Costs, and Sexual Selection in Drosophila 45.3 Environmental Limits to Population Growth Exponential Growth Logistic Growth Carrying Capacity and the Logistic Model Role of Intraspecific Competition Examples of Logistic Growth Visual Connection 45.4 Population Dynamics and Regulation Density-Dependent Regulation Density-Independent Regulation and Interaction with Density-Dependent Factors Evolution Connection Why Did the Woolly Mammoth Go Extinct? Life Histories of K-selected and r-selected Species Modern Theories of Life History 45.5 Human Population Growth Link to Learning Overcoming Density-Dependent Regulation Age Structure, Population Growth, and Economic Development Visual Connection Long-Term Consequences of Exponential Human Population Growth Link to Learning 45.6 Community Ecology Predation and Herbivory Defense Mechanisms against Predation and Herbivory Link to Learning Competitive Exclusion Principle Symbiosis Commensalism Mutualism Parasitism Characteristics of Communities Foundation Species Biodiversity, Species Richness, and Relative Species Abundance Keystone Species Everyday Connection Invasive Species Community Dynamics Primary Succession and Pioneer Species Secondary succession 45.7 Behavioral Biology: Proximate and Ultimate Causes of Behavior Innate Behaviors: Movement and Migration Kinesis and Taxis Fixed Action Patterns Migration Foraging Innate Behaviors: Living in Groups Communication within a Species Link to Learning Altruistic Behaviors Finding Sex Partners Link to Learning Simple Learned Behaviors Habituation Imprinting Link to Learning Conditioned Behavior Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Cognitive Learning Sociobiology Key Terms Chapter Summary 45.1 Population Demography 45.2 Life Histories and Natural Selection 45.3 Environmental Limits to Population Growth 45.4 Population Dynamics and Regulation 45.5 Human Population Growth 45.6 Community Ecology 45.7 Behavioral Biology: Proximate and Ultimate Causes of Behavior Visual Connection Questions Review Questions Critical Thinking Questions
Chapter 46 Ecosystems Introduction Chapter Outline 46.1 Ecology of Ecosystems Food Chains and Food Webs Link to Learning Evolution Connection Three-spined Stickleback Research into Ecosystem Dynamics: Ecosystem Experimentation and Modeling Conceptual Models Visual Connection Analytical and Simulation Models Link to Learning 46.2 Energy Flow through Ecosystems How Organisms Acquire Energy in a Food Web Productivity within Trophic Levels Ecological Efficiency: The Transfer of Energy between Trophic Levels Modeling Ecosystems Energy Flow: Ecological Pyramids Visual Connection Consequences of Food Webs: Biological Magnification 46.3 Biogeochemical Cycles Link to Learning The Water (Hydrologic) Cycle Link to Learning The Carbon Cycle Link to Learning The Biological Carbon Cycle The Biogeochemical Carbon Cycle The Nitrogen Cycle Visual Connection The Phosphorus Cycle Everyday Connection Chesapeake Bay The Sulfur Cycle Link to Learning Key Terms Chapter Summary 46.1 Ecology of Ecosystems 46.2 Energy Flow through Ecosystems 46.3 Biogeochemical Cycles Visual Connection Questions Review Questions Critical Thinking Questions
Chapter 47 Conservation Biology and Biodiversity Introduction Chapter Outline 47.1 The Biodiversity Crisis Types of Biodiversity Current Species Diversity Patterns of Biodiversity Career Connection Biogeographer Conservation of Biodiversity Biodiversity Change through Geological Time The Five Mass Extinctions Visual Connection Link to Learning The Pleistocene Extinction Recent Extinctions Estimates of Present-Time Extinction Rates Link to Learning 47.2 The Importance of Biodiversity to Human Life Human Health Agricultural Diversity Visual Connection Wild Food Sources Link to Learning Psychological and Moral Value 47.3 Threats to Biodiversity Habitat Loss Everyday Connection Preventing Habitat Destruction with Wise Wood Choices Overharvesting Link to Learning Link to Learning Exotic Species Link to Learning Climate Change 47.4 Preserving Biodiversity Measuring Biodiversity Visual Connection Changing Human Behavior Conservation in Preserves How Much Area to Preserve? Preserve Design Limitations on Preserves Link to Learning Habitat Restoration The Role of Captive Breeding Key Terms Chapter Summary 47.1 The Biodiversity Crisis 47.2 The Importance of Biodiversity to Human Life 47.3 Threats to Biodiversity 47.4 Preserving Biodiversity Visual Connection Questions Review Questions Critical Thinking Questions