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Various types of plants are given different types of phosphorus compounds.
The detergents use sodiumphosphate compounds.
Com pounds such as Na4P2O7 and Na5P3O10 remove metal ion from hard water, increasing the effectiveness of the detergent and preventing scum rings on sinks and tubs.
The overfertilization of algae in bodies of water is one of the reasons detergents are being replaced with other compounds.
Phosphoric acid and phosphates are used in the food industry.
There is a soft drink called phosphoric acid.
phosphoric acid adds a acidic taste to soft drinks at a low concentration.
It prevents the growth ofbacteria in the soda.
The uses of phosphates in the food industry are summarized in Table 24.5.
They get a full octet by gaining two more electrons.
Oxygen is a stronger oxidizer than the rest of the group.
Oxygen has the second highest electronegativity of any element, while the rest of the 6A elements range from 2.5 to 2.0.
Oxygen can be found in many compounds, including metal oxides, carbonates, silicates, and water.
Oxygen is important for life because it oxidizes biomolecules to provide energy for most living systems.
Oxygen is a diatomic, nonpolar gas.
It is a pale blue liquid.
Oxygen is in the water at 25 degrees.
There is enough oxygen in the water to support life.
A few types of living systems that dwell deep in the ocean near vents that emit sulfur- containing fumes base their life processes on sulfur chemistry rather than oxygen chemistry.
O2 makes up about 21% of Earth's atmosphere, but it wasn't always this way.
Earth's early atmosphere contained hydrogen, methane, ammonia, and carbon dioxide.
The carbon dioxide and water were converted to oxygen by the blue-green algae.
It took hundreds of millions of years to reach the current levels of oxygen.
The English scientist and minister Joseph Priestley is credited with covering oxygen.
In 1774, he isolated oxygen by focusing sunlight on mercury(II) oxide and collecting the gas that was released as red powder oxide formed liquid mercury.
He used the gas to make a candle burn brighter.
He carried out a number of experiments under the ocean, including breathing in sulfur chemistry for life newfound gas.
The credit goes toAntoine Lavoisier for recognizing that oxygen is present near the vents.
He said that the reaction of a substance with oxygen is called combustion.
The discoveries and explanations were important in the development of modern chemistry.
Oxygen is one of the most abundant industrial chemicals.
Cool air until its components liquefy.
Oxygen is left behind when components such as N2 and Ar are separated from the air.
Oxygen can be stored and transported in tanks under high pressure.
The production of oxygen can be done using the electrolysis of water.
Hydrogen gas and oxygen gas can be produced by passing an electric current through water with a small amount of an electrolyte.
The conversion of high-carbon iron to steel involves the enrichment of the air in a blast furnace.
Oxygen is used in torches for cutting metals.
Oxygen is used to create artificial air for use underwater and in safety equipment.
Oxygen plays an important role in the treatment of a number of medical conditions, such as acute and chronic lung diseases and heart disorders.
Patients usually use masks or catheters to get oxygen from a tank of compressed oxygen.
The portable oxygen concentrators use sieves to separate oxygen from air.
Hyperbaric oxygen therapy can be used on patients with hard-to-heal wounds associated with diabetes.
The high oxygen level can kill the anaerobicbacteria that can cause wounds.
Oxygen reacts with other elements to form oxides.
The oxidation state of oxygen in the oxide is what we classify oxides by.
The size and charge of the metal determine the type of oxide that forms.
Regular oxides are more stable than higher charged oxides.
Superoxides have a smaller charge and are more stable.
Oxygen reacts with many nonmetals.
Many of the nonmetals form oxides.
We have already seen that carbon forms CO and CO2 and that nitrogen forms N2O, NO, N2O3 and N2O4.
People can detect the smell at a low level, and the odor is often seen in electrical storms or near electrical equipment because the gas forms from O2 by an electrical discharge.
Ozone is denser than O2 and can be seen in a deep blue liquid.
As O2 is converted to O3 the volume of gas decreases.
Cold concentrated sulfuric acid is used to produce ozone.
Ozone is a strong oxidizer.
Ozone is a safe replacement for chlorine in water-purification plants because the only by-product is O2.
Since ozone naturally degrades, it must be continually regenerated.
Ozone forms as a result of fossil fuel combustion in the air we breathe.
It is a harmful substance because it is a strong oxidizing agent.
Ozone damages the lungs, skin, eyes, and most plant and animal tissues in the lower atmosphere.
Ozone causes plastic and rubber materials to become brittle and crack.
The layer of ozone in the upper atmosphere plays an important role in the absorption of harmful ultraviolet radiation from the sun.
It breaks apart after absorbing the UV radiation.
The oxygen atom will react with another O2 molecule to form ozone.
The ozone layer has been damaged by chlorofluorocarbons.
Legislation has banned the use of chlorofluorocarbons in order to help the ozone layer recover.
Sulfur is a nonmetal that is part of the 6A family.
Sulfur is a stronger oxidizer than oxygen.
When bonding with highly positive metals, the chemistry of the Nonmetals anions is required.
In the Gulf Coast area of the United States and eastern Europe, there are a few natural deposits of sulfur.
Sulfur deposits are caused by superheated water and compressed air being forced down long pipes.
The Frasch ring allotrope of sulfur is composed of an S8 ring structure called process extracts molten sulfur from the ground.
Most of the allotropes have ring structures that heat water into beds of sulfur.
A straw-yellow liquid is formed when cyclooctasulfur is heated above its melt ing point.
The sulfur becomes a darker, more viscous liquid as the broken rings entangle one another.
The color is dark when the liquid becomes very viscous and pours slowly, as can be seen in the accompanying photo.
The intermolecular forces between the S8 chains weaken as the temperature rises.
If the hot liquid is poured into cold water, the sulfur will form a solid.
The material is flexible, but it becomes brittle when hardened.
Less than one-third of the world's sul fur is provided by the Frasch process and sulfur is recovered from other industrial processes.
Dihydrogen monosulfide is a component of natural gas.
The sulfur quenches can be found at Earth's surface.
Natural sources of H2S for the atmosphere include rotting vegetation.
We can detect the smell of H2S at low concentrations, which poses no threat to our health.
100 parts per million can cause death and 10 parts per million can cause nausea.
The smell of H2S becomes more difficult to detect at high levels because it has an anesthetic effect that dulls the sense of smell.
It is a reason to move quickly to fresh air when there is a strong H2S odor.
H2S does not share the same chemical properties with water.
Water has a larger bond angle than hydrogen sulfide.
Water forms strong hydrogen bonds while hydrogen sulfide does not.
The differences result in a lower boiling point and greater reactivity for hydrogen sulfide.
In the presence of air and oxygen, water is a stable molecule.
Oxygen reacts with hydrogen sulfide to form sulfur oxides.
A balanced equation is needed for the reaction of O2 and H2S to form S. The oxidation state for S has changed.
The oxidation states should be assigned to each element.
The oxidation state of S changes from -2 in H2S to 0 in S.
The reaction of oxygen with H2S to form SO2 requires a balanced equation.
The oxidation state for S has changed.
Table 24.7 contains some common metal sulfides and their product constants.
H2S is a good analytical method to determine whether metal ion are present in a solution because of the low solubility of these sulfides.
It is possible to make toxic metals from industrial waste sources.
Metal sulfides are toxic tobacteria and have a number of industrial uses.
SeS2 and As2S3 are antiseptics that kill bugs and parasites.
Another sulfur compound is sulfur dioxide.
It has an acidic taste under standard conditions.
Sulfur dioxide is a pollutant that can be found in many industrial processes.
Industrial processes scrub their emissions to remove SO2 from the atmosphere.
There are new uses for the tons of waste CaSO4.
One use for SO2 takes advantage of its toxicity.
Food producers spray fruits and other vegetation with a solution containing SO2 to kill mold and preserve the fruit.
It is possible for inhabitants of the Northern Hemisphere to enjoy summer fruits in the winter thanks to the fact that the fruits and vegetables can be shipped throughout the world.
The production of sulfuric acid is the most important use of sulfur.
The most abundant chemical in the world is sulfuric acid, because it is a strong acid, a strong oxidizing agent, and a good dehydrating agent.
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