Between 1870 and 1871, the federal government passed the Enforcement Acts.
It was a crime to deprive African Americans of their civil rights.
The use of U.S. troops to protect freed people was allowed because violent Klan behavior was deemed to be rebellion against the United States.
The federal government, its courts, and its troops tried to put an end to the KKK.
The violence continued.
Federal opposition to the KKK weakened as southern Democrats reestablished " home rule" and "redeemed" the South from Republicans.
The Freedmen's Bureau was created by the federal government to help freed people.
The bureau and the federal government realized that they could not keep African Americans safe in the South.
National attention shifted away from the South and the activities of the Klan, but African Americans remained trapped in a world of white supremacy that restricted their economic, social, and political rights.
White conservatives would say that Republicans were "waving a bloody shirt" in condemning violence.
According to many white conservatives, the violence was made up or an unavoidable consequence of African Americans being granted the right to vote.
The physical and mental trauma suffered by victims and witnesses was as lasting as the political and social consequences of the violence.
The end of federal involvement in Reconstruction was helped by terrorism.
African Americans wanted to get rid of the vestiges of slav ery.
Many discarded the names their former masters had chosen for them and adopted new names like "Freeman" and "Lincoln" that affirmed their new identities as free citizens.
Others moved far away from their former plantations, hoping to eventually farm their own land or run their own businesses.
The founding of dozens of black towns across the South was a result of economic independence and racial pride.
The Delta town of Mound Bayou, Mississippi, was established in the late 19th century by former slaves of Joseph and Jefferson Davis.
African Americans owned all of the property in town, including banks, insurance companies, shops, and the surrounding farms.
During their annual festival, the town celebrates African American cultural and economic achievements.
African Americans were able to live free from the indignities of segregation because of these tight-knit communities.
The American economy was changed by the Civil War.
The wealthy planters of the south were flush after producing brary of Congress.
Cotton, along with a number of other staple crops, was grown by over four million African American slaves.
Cotton fed the textile mills of America and Europe.
The American South had more per capita wealth on the eve of war than any other slave economy.
Slaves were worth $3 billion to their masters, but this wealth obscured the gains in infrastructure, industrial production, and financial markets that occurred north of the Mason-Dixon Line.
The northerners said their region was a land of free labor, populated by farmers, merchants, and wage laborers.
It had a robust market economy.
By 1860, northerners could buy clothing made in New England or light their homes with oil from Pennsylvania.
Grain from the Midwest was left over for export to Europe.
Along with the textile mills, shoe factories, and iron foundries, the firms that produced McCormick's wheat harvesters and Colt's firearms displayed the technical advances of northern manufacturers.
Their goods traveled across the country on the railroad network.
Aggregate capital that could be reinvested into further growth was helped by an extensive network of banks and financial markets.
The Civil War destroyed lives and property.
This was also true in the South.
Guns, food, and supplies were hard to find for the Confederate government.
It was never enough for Southerners to make huge gains in industrial production.
The blockade of the Atlantic prevented the Confederacy from financing the war with cotton sales to Europe.
The Confederate Congress tried to keep the economy alive by printing paper money that sank in value and caused rapid inflation.
In many cases, Confederate officials simply impressed the food and materials needed from their citizens by not paying taxes in cash.
The vast agricultural wealth of the South made it difficult for many southerners to find enough to eat.
The war made the U.S. government take unprecedented steps.
The first national income tax was passed by Congress.
The rise in government spending and the expansion of the currency created an increase in business in the early 19th century.
Inflation hit the North as the war dragged on.
The business community groaned under their growing tax burden as workers demanded higher wages to pay rent and buy necessities.
The United States did not have a policy of impressment for food and supplies.
The factories and farms of the North successfully supplied Union troops, while the federal government found the means to pay for war.
The outcome of the war is not to be suggested that the North's superior ability to supply its war machine made it inevitable.
The tangled web of politics, battles, and economics that occurred between 1861 and 1865 must be considered in any account of the war.
The aftermath of the war left parts of the Confederacy in ruins.
State governments were in debt.
White planters lost most of their wealth because they were tied up in slaves.
The war changed how cotton was grown and sold.
In a system called sharecropping, planters broke up large farms into smaller plots and single families tended them.
After cotton production resumed, Americans found that their cotton was competing with new plantations around the world.
The war and Reconstruction marked the beginning of a period of deep poverty that would last until the New Deal of the 1930s.
War wreaked havoc in the South.
Governmental and private buildings, communication systems, the economy, and transportation infrastructure were all debilitated.
The war's most important outcome was the freeing of slaves.
Freedom allowed African Americans in the South to rebuild families, hold property, and move freely for the first time.
The Republicans in the South wanted the region to be a free-labor economy.
The transition from slave labor to free labor was not clear.
White southerners used a combination of legal coercion and extralegal violence to maintain their systems of labor bound labor.
Vagrancy laws allowed law enforcement to justify the arrest of innocent black men and women, and the convict-lease system meant that arbitrary arrests resulted in decades of forced, uncompensated labor.
The most egregious example of economic injustice was the Massachusetts Agricultural Col of servitude, which lasted until World War II.
Lacking the means to buy their own farms, many colleges black farmers often turned to sharecropping.
There was no sudden economic boom for the rest of the Grant Colleges Act.
Wartime labor shortages promoted the use of mechanical reapers, reducing demand for labor, boosting farm yields, and sowing the seeds of inequality.
Wartime laws changed the relationship between the federal government and the economy.
Northern industry was protected from European competition.
The University of California, the University of Illinois, and the University of Wisconsin were created thanks to the Morrill Land Grant.
With the creation of the national banking system and greenbacks, Congress replaced hundreds of state bank notes with a system of federal currency that accelerated trade and exchange.
This wasn't to say that Republican policy worked for everyone.
Railroad corporations and speculators were often frustrated by the Homestead Act, which was meant to open the West to small farmers.
The Transcontinental Railroad failed to produce substantial economic gains for years.
When markets crashed on Black Friday in 1869, the war years forged a close relationship between government and the business elite, a relationship that sometimes resulted in corruption and catastrophe.
Washington's perceived eastern and industrial bias caused a political backlash in the West and South.
There were disagreements over civil rights and the direction of American economic development.
Reconstruction was the most important issue on the national agenda after the Depression of 1873.
The violence and intimidation of white Democrats was the biggest threat to Republican power in the South.
Reconstruction's quick collapse was prevented by the presence of federal troops in key southern cities.
The Fourteenth Amendment requires the United States to restore order and guarantee the rights of black southerners.
Republicans and Democrats retreated from Reconstruction to respond to economic uncertainty.
War-weary from a decade of military and political conflict, the so-called Stalwart Republicans turned from the ideals of civil rights to the practicality of economics and party politics.
During the first term of Grant's presidency, they won particular influence.
The Republicans were in control of party politics by the early 1870s.
Democrats who focused on business, economics, political corruption, and trade gained strength when they distanced themselves from pro-slavery Democrats and Copperheads.
They were called Redeemers in the South.
Between 1869 and 1871, the Redeemers won the support of white southerners by promising local rule by white Democrats, rather than black or white Republicans.
Reconstruction was ended in three states by 1871: Tennessee, Virginia, and Georgia.
A bank run that spiraled into a six-year depression was caused by Jay Cooke and Company declaring bankruptcy in September 1873.
The nation's already suffering laboring class was destroyed by the Depression of 1873.
In the South, where many farms were capitalized entirely through loans, sources of credit vanished, and farmers entered a labor market that was already over saturated.
Wages plummeted and a growing system of debt peonage trapped workers in poverty.
The Democrats took control of the House of Representatives after the 1874 elections because of the economic turmoil.
The nation was still reeling from depression on the eve of the 1876 presidential election.
The Grant Administration had a lot of scandals.
The Mississippi Plan, a wave of violence designed to intimidate black activists and suppress black voters, was hatched by Democrats in Mississippi.
The Ohio governor's race was won by a Republican who focused on fighting corruption and alcohol abuse and promoting economic recovery.
He was a potential presidential candidate because of his success.
The election would end Reconstruction as a national issue.
Democrats chose Samuel J. Tilden, who ran on honest politics and home rule in the South, as their nominee.
The president would be determined by Florida, Louisiana, and South Carolina.
During the Panic of 1873, workers demanded that the federal government help them.
Protesters gathered in New York City's Tompkins Square in January 1874 to demand that the government make job creation a priority.
The unemployment movement lost steam as police dispersed the crowd, and they were met with brutality.
A federal special electoral commission voted along party lines, with eight Republicans for, seven Democrats against, in favor of Hayes.
Democrats threatened to not attend the inauguration.
Rival governments claimed to recognize Tilden as the rightfully elected president.
Republicans reached out to Democrats because they were afraid of another crisis.
The Compromise of 1877 was when the Democrats conceded the presidency in exchange for removing troops from the South and getting special economic favors.
In March 1877, Hayes was inaugurated.
The last troops were ordered out of the South in April.
The compromise allowed southern Democrats to return to power without fear of reprisal from federal troops or northern politicians who had used violence against black voters.
The table shows the military districts of the South, the date the state was readmitted into the Union, and the date when conservatives regained control of the state house.
Republicans did not have the political capital to intervene in cases of violence and electoral fraud in the South after 1877.
South Carolina has a large population of African Americans and freed people continued to hold local offices for several years.
Reconstruction's most modest promises were taken off the table by the early 1870s due to economic depression and political turmoil.
The restoration of the Union was a paramount desire of Abraham Lincoln.
Legal slavery in the United States ended after the war, but African Americans remained secondclass citizens and women still struggled for full participation in the public life of the country.
The closing of Reconstruction resulted in the reunification of North and South behind the imperatives of economic growth and territorial expansion.
A new nation was formed from the ashes of the civil war.
The chapter was edited by Nicole Turner.
The 13th amendment to the Con stitution was proposed by the House Joint Resolution on January 31, 1865.
"Granting Full Pardon and Am nesty for the Offense of Treason against the United States during the Late Civil War" was written by Andrew Johnson.
"To the Women of the Republic," address from the Women's Loyal National League supporting the abolition of slavery, January 25, 1864, SEN 38A-H20.
The President's letters of May-December 1869 were in the General Records of the Department of Justice.