ChAPTER 24 -- Part 2: Africa and the Africans in the Age of
In the 15th century, Portuguese exploration and trade with the Mbundu peoples south of Kongo evolved into trade, conquest, and missionary activities.
The Portu created outposts in Mozambique and along the Swahili coast.
The Portuguese tried to get alliances with local Christians in ethiopia.
The number of permanent Portuguese settlers was low in east Africa.
The Portuguese effort was always accompanied by a missionary effort.
The Portuguese established contact with others.
In the 17th century, the Dutch, English, French, and others peted with the Portuguese and displaced them to some extent, but the combination of force and diplomacy, alliances with local rulers, and the predominance of commercial relations continued.
The slave trade was a central part of Portugal's interest in gold, pepper, and other products.
When serfdom replaced slavery in most of Europe during the Middle Ages, it was the end of an institution that had been extensive in the Roman empire.
There was an active military frontier between Christians and Muslims in the Mediterranean.
The trans-Saharan slave trade brought a small number of black Africans into the Mediterranean.
The Portuguese voyages opened a direct channel to Africa.
Slaves became a common trade item after the first slaves arrived in Portugal in 1441.
The Portuguese and other Europeans raided for slaves along the coast, but the numbers acquired were small.
After initial raids, Europeans realized that trade was a more secure and profitable way to get human cargo.
African artists were impressed by the strangeness.
Whether the victims were acquired by raiding or trade, the europeans incorporated them in their own work as the effects on them were similar.
A person who witnessed the unloading of slaves can be seen in the headpiece of the monarch.
For some kept their heads low and their faces bathed in tears, looking one upon another, while others stood groaning and crying out loudly, as if asking for help from the Father of Nature.
There are sugar plantations on the Atlantic islands of Madeira and the Canaries in Spain and on the African coast on the Portuguese-held island of Sao Tome.
Sugar production demanded a lot of work for Portuguese colony ers and they had to work under difficult conditions.
The plantation system of organization associated with sugar, in which managers were able to direct and control laborers over long periods with little restraint, was later extended to America and other crops.
The system depended on Africans, but they became the primary planta tion laborers in the Atlantic world.
After 1550, the slave trade grew in volume and complexity as the American colonies began to develop.
The slave trade dominated all other trade on the African coast by 1600.
Although debate and controversy surround many aspects of the history of slavery, it is perhaps best to start with the numbers.
It was published by Cambridge university Press.
Estimates of the trans-Atlantic trade have been raised by 8% to 12,570,000 between 1501 and 1867 rather than the 11,656,000 reported here.
Between 1450 and 1850, 12 million Africans were shipped across the Atlantic.
About 10 or 11 million Africans arrived in the Americas with a mortality rate of 10 to 20 percent on the ships.
Estimates of how many people died in Africa as a result of the slaving wars and forced marches to the coast are unknown.
Over time, the volume changed.
In the 16th century, the numbers were small, but in the 17th century they increased to 16,000 a year.
Between 1700 and 1800, more than 7 million slaves were exported from the Atlantic slave trade.
3 million slaves lived in the Americas by the last date.
The slave trade continued even after slavery was abolished in the 19th century.
Brazil took more than 1 million slaves in that century.
Over time, there was a loss of popula Illustration of a Slave Camp tion.
The only way to increase the number of slaves was to import more from Africa.
The southern United States, where the slave population grew, may have been due to the fact that few worked in dangerous occupations, such as sugar growing and mining.
By 1860, almost 6 million slaves worked in the Americas, about 4 million of them in the southern United States, an area that depended more on natural population growth than on the Atlantic slave trade.
The majority of slaves were exported from the Senegambia Demerara, essequebo, and Suriname in the 16th century.
The major supplier was Angola.
At the end of the century, the areas of the Gold Coast and the Slave Coast were exporting more than 10,000 slaves per year.
The large states of Asante were created by wars for control of the interior in the century that followed.
Increased slave exports from these regions were the cause of these wars.