The effect of the first difference is to refine and enlarge the public views, by passing them through the medium of a chosen body of citizens, whose wisdom may best discern the true interest of their country, and whose patriotism and love of justice will be least likely to sacrifice.
It is possible that the public voice will be more compatible with the public good if it is pronounced by the representatives of the people.
The effect may be changed.
Men of factious tempers, of local prejudices, or of sinister designs, may first obtain the suffragists, and then betray the interests of the people.
In the first place, it is to be said that the representatives must be raised to a certain number in order to guard against a few, and that they must be limited to a certain number.
If the proportion of fit characters are not less in the large than in the small republic, the former will present a greater option.
In the next place, as each representative will be chosen by a larger number of citizens in the large than in the small republic, it will be more difficult for unworthy candidates to practice with success the vicious arts by which elections are too often carried.
In this case, there is a mean on both sides of the road, which will be found to lie.
If you enlarge the number of electors, you render the representatives too little acquainted with their local circumstances and lesser interests, and if you reduce the number of electors, you render them too little fit to comprehend and pursue great and national objects.
The interests of the national, local and particular to the State legislatures are referred to in the federal Constitution.
The larger the number of citizens and the extent of territory that can be brought within the compass of republican than of democratic government makes factious combinations less to be feared in the latter.
The smaller the society, the less likely it will be to have distinct parties and interests, the less likely a majority will be found of the same party, and the smaller the compass within which they are.
It is less likely that a majority of the whole will have a common motive to invade the rights of other citizens if you extend the sphere.
Communication is always checked by distrust to the number whose concurrence is necessary when there is a consciousness of unjust or dishonorable purposes.
The same advantage which a republic has over a democracy, in controlling the effects of faction, is enjoyed by the Union over the States that compose it.
The representation of the Union will most likely have these endowments.
The extent of the Union gives it an advantage.
The influence of factious leaders can cause a flame within their States, but they will not be able to spread a general conflagration through the other States.
A religious sect that becomes a political group in a part of the Confederacy must be secured by a variety of sects over the entire face of it.
A rage for paper money, for an abolition of debts, for an equal division of property, or for any other improper or wicked project will be less likely to affect the whole body of the Union than a particular member of it.
The Union has a republican remedy for diseases that occur to the republican government.
According to the degree of pleasure and pride we feel in being republicans, our zeal should be in supporting the character of the Federalists.
It was aimed at people who were worried about corruption in a large country.
Government will always distribute resources in ways that benefit one group over another.
Interest groups are formed by people to influence government policy.
Interest groups lobby elected officials, rally public opinion, and offer policy suggestions to accomplish their goals.
Interest groups have to organize and convince others to join.
There are different types of interest groups.
Business associations and trade unions want to improve their status.
Equal opportunity groups organize to gain, or at least improve, economic status and civil rights as a result of public interest groups advocating their vision of society.
Associations are formed to improve relations.
Lobbyists play a key role in interest groups.
They influence public policy either by approaching the three branches of government or by convincing the people to pressure them.
Funding, quality of leadership, membership size and intensity, and access to information are some of the factors that affect the success of individual interest groups.
Critics of interest groups fear that the most powerful groups are simply those with the most money, and that this poses a danger to American democracy.
Interest group formation may be seen as a way to give more power to more citizens, as well as a way to keep politicians accountable, by offering additional channels for representation, participation, education, and public agenda building.
There is a bar graph of financial contributions to both political parties.
35 percent of the finance, insurance, and real estate sector's contribution went to Democrats and 65 percent to Republicans.
The ideology and single-issue sector gave over 70 million dollars to Democrats and Republicans.
The health sector gave 55 million dollars to Democrats and 60 million dollars to Republicans.
The labor sector gave 50 million dollars to Democrats and 14 million dollars to Republicans.
The business sector gave over 45 million dollars to Democrats and Republicans.
Democrats received 21 percent of the energy and natural resources sector's contribution.
Democrats received 42 percent of the communications and electronics sector's contribution.
The transportation sector gave over 27 million dollars to Democrats and Republicans.
The agribusiness sector gave 26 million dollars to Democrats and 74 million dollars to Republicans.
Democrats received 36 percent of the defense sector's contribution.
The construction sector gave 16,123,135 dollars to Democrats and 77 percent to Republicans.
49 percent of the lawyer and lobbyist sector's donations went to Democrats and 51 percent to Republicans.
35 percent of the money went to Democrats and 65 percent to Republicans.