ChAPTER 2 -- Part 2: The Rise of Civilization in the Middle
Animists believe that the natural world is alive with supernatural forces that can be found in groves of trees or revered animals.
In early human societies, there were a lot of animist beliefs and practices, and they are still pervasive today.
When hunting-and-gathering populations expanded, the spread of human Culture Migration was essential, and it led to the peopling of the world's major land mass.
This is the main theme of the first stage of the human experience.
We now call the continents North and South America.
Warming waters eliminated the land bridge and further migration by 10,000 b.c.e.
Human colonies were found in the south and west of Australia by 12,000 b.c.
Thanks to a larger land mass and lower ocean levels, the island chain of Southeast Asia extended closer to Australia.
Recent archeological research has shown that in some places, human ingenuity and natu ral conditions allowed some groups to establish settlements, where they lived for much of the year and in some cases for generation after generation.
The settled communities harvest wild grains that grow in abundance.
Some communities made the transition to true farming by domesticating plants and animals near their permanent vil lage sites after surviving for centu ries in this way.
There was no single pattern among those who reverted to migration.
Few could support a band larger than 20 to 30 men, women, and children.
Human population densities were low because early human groups had a variety of stone selves.
Stone Age peoples lived in caves and the tools shown here include weapon points and scrapers.
There have been recent peeling off animal hides.
There are shelters of skins and leaves for cattle and sheep.
Their flimsy campsites could be readily abandoned societies that were normally found on the fringes of civilized societies.
It is possible that bands developed a sense of territoriality, but boundaries were vague.
Because they became skilled in the use of weapons in the hunt, they are more likely to protect the band from animal attacks and raids by other human groups.
As the cave paint people, nomadic hunters and gather ings featured in the Document section suggest, animal hunts were major events in the annual cycle ers.
Women and children prepared and preserved the meat after the hunting parties.
Women's roles were less aggressive than men's, but they were still critical to the survival of the band.
When hunting parties were unsuccessful, women gathered the food that provided the basic sustenance of the band.
Medici nal plants were the only way Paleolithic peoples could treat disease.
They created more intensive hunting-and-gathering patterns.
is when the spread of Human Populations began.
The most spectacular settlements are in central Russia.
Some 20,000 years ago, there was an abundance of large but slow woolly mammoths in that region.
The local peoples were able to live in the same place throughout much of the year because of the meat supplied by these animals.
The large number of mammoth bones found in the garbage pits at the settlement sites suggest that they were dependent on the mammoths.
The use of the bones of these huge mammals in building dwellings is vividly demonstrated by this reliance.
Remnants found in food storage pits and other artifacts from the central Russian settlements show that these people participated in trading networks with other peoples as far away as the Black Sea.
There are clear status differences among the groups that lived in the settlements.
The bone communities lasted from about 18,000 to 10,000 b.c.e.
The col changes between 12,000 and 11,000 b.c.e.
were practiced by Jordan.
Wild grains were sufficient to support many densely populated settlements on a permanent basis when supplemented with nuts and meat.
The Natufian culture flourished between 10,500 and 8000 b.c.e.
The population densities were as high as seven to six times that of other Neolithic communities.
The Natufians used sophisticated techniques to store and prepare grain for meals.
They built stone dwellings that were occupied for centuries.
Natufian society was different from the mammoth-hunting societies of central Russia.
Grand burial ceremonies marked the death of the brides' families as young men went to live to have been used to distinguish their rank.
The female line may be explained by the fact that women gathered food crops in the wild.