In 1733, an immigrant wrote to his brother in Switzerland that he earned what he wanted.
The Indian population was threatened by the tide of newcomers who believed in liberty and possession of land.
Indian communities were integrated into the British system by the 18th century.
Indian warriors fought in the century's imperial wars.
Their cultures were very different from what they were at the time of first contact.
The Indian societies that existed for centuries had been wiped out by disease and warfare.
The Creek Confederacy, which united dozens of Indian towns in South Carolina and Georgia, was created from their remnants.
Indians chose to live among whites rather than in their own communities.
They were used to using European products such as knives, hatchets, needles, kettles, and firearms.
Social chaos was created by the introduction of alcohol.
The governor of South Carolina was told by a Cherokee in 1753 that the clothes they wear are made to them.
We use their bullets to kill deer.
In this print from the first half of the 18th century, America is depicted as a Native American.
Farmers and planters viewed Indians as little more than an obstacle to their desire for land, even though traders and British officials saw potential profits in Indian villages.
Indians were expected to give way to white settlers.
The native population of the Virginia and South Carolina frontier had already been displaced when large numbers of settlers arrived.
William Penn's Indian-white relations were upset by the flood of German and Scotch-Irish settlers into Pennsylvania.
At a 1721 conference, a group of colonial and Indian leaders affirmed Penn's chain of friendship.
Conflicts over land became more frequent.
The fraudulent dealing that was common in other colonies was brought to Pennsylvania by the Walking Purchase.
A tract of land was agreed to by the Lenni Lanape Indians.
The Governor hired a team of swift runners, who marked out an area far in excess of what the Indians had anticipated.
By 1760, when Pennsylvania's population had grown to 220,000, Indiancolonist relations had become poisoned by suspicion and hostility.
"old William Penn" treated them with respect and fairness.
The different regions of the British colonies had different economic and social orders by the mid-eighteenth century.
The area stretching from central Pennsylvania southward through the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia and into upland North and South Carolina was dominated by small farms that were geared to production for local consumption.
In North America, the backcountry was the fastest growing region.
The only white people in Indian country in 1730 were hunters and traders.
One quarter of Virginia's population and half of South Carolina's were contained in the region by the eve of the American Revolution.
Slave-owning planters entered the area, seeking fertile soil for tobacco farming, but most were farm families raising grain and livestock.
Penn's grandson Thomas commissioned a painting from the artist Benjamin West in 1741.
In the 19th century, Americans were reminded that Indians had been a part of their history.
In the Middle Colonies of New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania, farmers were more focused on commerce than on the frontier, growing grain for their own use and for sale abroad, and employing wage laborers, tenants, and slaves.
New York's growth was behind that of neighboring colonies because large landlords had so much desirable land.
There was a standard of living that was unimaginable in Europe.
Coffee and tea, pins, ribbons, glassware, ceramics, and clothing were some of the cheap consumer goods produced and traded by Great Britain during the 18th century.
The British empire was integrated by trade.
The American colonies shared in the era's consumer revolution as they were drawn more and more into the system of Atlantic commerce.
British goods were advertised in American newspapers in port cities and small inland towns.
British merchants gave American traders loans so they could import these products.
The mass production, advertising, and sale of consumer goods did not exist in colonial America.
Records of people's possessions at the time of death revealed the wide dispersal in American homes of English and Asian products.
Most colonists lived in a world of homespun clothing and homemade goods in the 17th century.
Modest farmers and artisans used to own books, ceramic plates, metal utensils, and items made of imported silk and cotton.
Tea became a necessity of life because it was a luxury enjoyed only by the wealthy.
Britain's mainland colonies were mostly agricultural.
Nine-tenths of the population lived in rural areas.
Boston, New York, Philadelphia, and Charleston were not as big as Europe or Spanish America.
When the population of Mexico City was 100,000, Boston and New York had 6,000 and 4,500 residents, respectively.
Spanish America had eight cities that were larger than any in English North America.
English American cities were used to gather agricultural goods and imported items to be distributed to the countryside.
The rise of port cities was encouraged by the expansion of trade, with a growing population of colonial merchants and artisans as well as an increasing number of poor.
Philadelphia was the capital of the New World and the third-busiest port in the empire.
The financial, commercial, and cultural center of British America depended on economic integration with the rich agricultural region nearby.
Farm goods, rural storekeepers, and extended credit to consumers were organized by Philadelphia merchants.
They shipped flour, bread, and meat to the West Indies and Europe.
The city had a large population of furniture makers, jewelers, and silversmiths, as well as hundreds of lesser artisans like weavers, blacksmiths, and construction workers.
The typical artisan had his own tools and worked in a small workshop at home with help from family members and apprentices.
The artisan's skill, which set him apart from the common laborers below him in the social scale, was the key to his existence, and it gave him a far greater degree of economic freedom than those dependent on others for a livelihood.
Benjamin Franklin wrote that he was a printer and an estate.
American craftsmen were helped by the expanding consumer market.
Journeymen had a good chance of rising to the status of master and establishing a workshop of their own.
Some achieved great success.
One of the city's most prominent artisans was Myer Myers, a Jewish silversmith of Dutch ancestry who was born in New York City in 1723.
Religious ornaments for both synagogues and Protestant churches, as well as jewelry, candlesticks, coffeepots, and other gold and silver objects, were produced by Myers.
He used some of his money to buy land in New Hampshire and Connecticut.
The opportunities colonial cities offered to skilled men of diverse ethnic and religious background reflected the career of Myers.
An Atlantic World People, ideas, and goods flowed back and forth across the Atlantic, knitting together the empire and its diverse populations and creating webs of interdependence among the European empires.
Tobacco, sugar, and other products of the Western Hemisphere were marketed as far away as eastern Europe.
The slave trade between Africa and Brazil was financed by London bankers.
Spain imported goods from other countries.
The major overseas market for British manufactured goods was the North American and West Indian colonies.
Although most colonial output was consumed at home, North Americans shipped farm products to Britain, the West Indies and other countries outside the empire.
Most of the tobacco crop was re-exported to Europe by British merchants.
Most of the bread and flour exported from the colonies was destined for the West Indies.
African slaves there grew sugar that could be distilled into rum, a product that was popular among both North American colonists and Indians, who obtained it by trading furs and deerskins.
The trade in fish and grains with southern Europe was flourishing.
One third of the British empire's trading fleet was built in New England.
There were many advantages to being a member of the empire.
Most Americans didn't complain about British regulation of their trade because it was good for the colonies and the mother country.
American shipping was protected by the Royal Navy.
English America became more and more similar to the mother country across the Atlantic during the 18th century.
dentured families or persons who received passage to the New World in exchange for a promise to work off their debt in America
The Lenni Lanape Indians were tricked into buying Indian land in 1737 by Pennsylvanian colonists.
The Lanape agreed to give up land equivalent to the distance a man could walk in a day.
The area stretching from central Pennsylvania southward through the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia and into upland North and South Carolina was in colonial America.
John Durand painted a portrait of Jane Beekman, the daughter of James Beekman, one of the wealthiest colonists.
It is unusual to depict a young girl with a book, rather than emphasizing fashionable attire.
Both cultures of the Beekman family emphasized the importance of education for women.
As colonial society matured, an elite emerged that was not as powerful nor as wealthy as the aristocracy of England, but still dominated politics and society.
The gap between rich and poor probably grew more rapidly in the 18th century than any other period of American history.
Expansion of trade in New England and the Middle Colonies allowed for the emergence of a powerful upper class of merchants, often linked by family or commercial ties to great trading firms in London.
In colonial America, there were no banks.
Business talent and personal connections were more important than credit and money.
Tobacco and rice were staple crops for the world market and were produced by slave plantations in the Lower South.
The planters had enormous wealth.
The rulers of Pennsylvania and Maryland were included in the colonial elite.
America had no aristocracy like in Britain.
It didn't have a system of established social ranks or family ties stretching back to medieval times.
The De Lanceys, Livingstons, and van Rensselaers of New York, the Penn family in Pennsylvania, and a few southern planters were the only ones whose landholdings were comparable to those of the British aristocracy.
The men of prominence were in charge of the colonial government.
The gentry controlled the vestries, or local governing bodies, of the established Anglican Church, dominated the county courts, and were prominent in Virginia's legislature.
Seven members of the same generation of the Lee family sat in the House of Burgesses in the 17th century.
An artist painted a portrait of Robert "King" Carter of Virginia.
Carter was one of the most influential men in the colonies.
The environment of Virginia in the 18th century was better than the early days of settlement.
It is expected that planters will pass their wealth down to the next generation, providing estates for their sons and establishing family dynasties.
Every Virginian of note achieved prominence through family connections.
The days when self-made men could rise into the Virginia gentry were long gone.
Thomas Jefferson's grandfather was a justice of the peace, militia captain, and sheriff, and his father was a member of the House of Burgesses.
The justices of the peace were George Washington's father, grandfather, and greatgrandfather.
As western areas opened for settlement, the Virginia gentry gained possession of large tracts of land.
Grants of 20,000 to 40,000 acres were common.
By the time of his death in 1732, Robert "King" Carter had acquired 300,000 acres of land and 1,000 slaves.
There wasn't a real "American" identity before the American Revolution.
The term "Americans" was used to describe Indians rather than colonists in the 17th century.
Europeans often depicted the colonies with an image of a Native American.
European immigrants used languages other than English from their home countries.
Intermarriage with other groups was more common among Huguenots than among Jews.
The British people wanted to create a "English" identity in the New World.
Britons were convinced that the colonists were just like them.
In Great Britain, the colonists were seen as a collection of convicts, religious dissidents, and impoverished servants.
Many colonists claimed a claim to Britishness more strongly.
American Indians and Africans were seen as unable to wield the responsibilities of liberty due to their place of birth.
They should not be involved in governance.
British identity in the colonies was defined by opposition to others, including Spanish and French Catholics.
Most Indians preferred to keep their own cultures and religions, so they were not included in a collective colonial identity.
Intermarriage and culture exchange between settlers and Indians was much more common in the Spanish and French New World empires.
In the 18th century, the American colonies had more regular trade with Britain than with themselves.
A common lifestyle and sense of common interests were developed by the elite in different regions.
Wealthy Americans modeled their lives on British behavior.
They wanted to demonstrate their status and legitimacy by sending their sons to Britain for education, and building homes with fashionable furnishings modeled on London.
Large rooms for entertainment, display cases for imported luxury goods, and elaborate formal gardens were included in their residences.
George Washington had a coat of arms designed for his family in imitation of the English upper-class practice.
Desperate to follow an extravagant lifestyle, many planters fell into debt.
William Byrd III of Virginia had a debt that was almost unheard of in England or America.
Virginia's gentry was affected by the world market for tobacco.
South Carolina planters were the richest on the mainland.
South Carolina's elite traveled north to Newport, Rhode Island, for their summer vacations and spent most of their time in Charleston, the only real urban center south of Philadelphia and the richest city in British North America.
The social life here centered on theaters, literary societies, and social events.
Like their Virginia counterparts, South Carolina's grandees lived a lavish lifestyle with imported furniture, fine wines, silk clothing, and other items from England.
The house slaves were dressed in specially designed uniforms.
The per capita wealth in the Charleston District was more than four times that of tobacco areas in Virginia and eight times that of Philadelphia.
South Carolina's wealth was very concentrated.
The richest 10 percent of the colony owned half of the wealth.
England's balanced, stable social order was mimicked by elites throughout the colonies.
Liberty, in their eyes, meant the right of those with wealth and prominence to rule over others.
Some men were endowed with greater talents than others and were destined to rule the society.
They believed that the social order was held together by webs of influence.
Each place in the hierarchy had different responsibilities, and one's status was revealed in dress, manners, and the magnificence of one's home.
One colonial newspaper said that "dependence" and "superiority" were natural elements of any society.
Political power and wealth were legitimized by an image of refinement.
The elites prided themselves on making productive use of leisure.
On both sides of the Atlantic, elites considered work to be reserved for slaves and common folk.
The gentleman was free from labor.
Poverty was seen as a feature of colonial life at the other end of the social scale.
Although not considered by most of their society, the growing number of slaves lived in poverty.
In Britain, between one-quarter and one-half of the people needed public assistance in the early part of the century.
In long-settled areas, access to land diminished rapidly as the colonial population expanded.
The high birthrate fueled population growth in New England.
sons who could not inherit farms were forced to move to other colonies or try their hand at a trade in the region's towns Tenants and wage laborers were present on farms in the Middle Colonies by the mid-century.
The number of propertyless wage earners in colonial cities increased.
Half of the wealth at mid-century was concentrated in the hands of the richest 10 percent of the population.
British precedents mirrored attitudes and policies toward poverty in colonial America.
The poor were seen as lazy, shiftless, and responsible for their own plight by the better off.
Rural communities and cities were responsible for assisting their own.
Poor people were often set to work in workhouses where they produced goods that were paid for by the authorities.
The children were sent to work as apprentices.
Most communities adopted stringent measures to "warn out" unemployed and propertyless newcomers who might become dependent on local poor relief.
The unwanted poor were either thrown out of the area or declared ineligible for assistance.
The number of poor people warned out in Essex County rose from 200 in the 1730s to 1,700 in the 1760s.
Many were members of families headed by women who had died.
The majority of Americans lived in the middle of wealth and poverty.
The wide distribution of land and the economic independence of most ordinary free families were what distinguished the mainland colonies from Europe.
The majority of the free male population were farmers.
England had no class of laborers like American slaves, but three-fifths of its people owned no property at all.
The scene was painted by Edward Hicks in the 1840s.
In colonial eastern Pennsylvania, a prosperous farm is largely self-sufficient but also producing for the market.
The farm workers are slaves.
Edward is listening to Mrs. Twining read the Bible.
Landownership was seen as a right by colonial farm families in the 18th century.
They were against efforts to limit their access to land.
British North America had a dislike of personal dependence and an understanding of freedom as not relying on others for a livelihood.
The wide distribution of property that made economic independence part of the lived experience of large numbers of white colonists was accorded with these beliefs.
The family was the center of economic life in America during the 18th century.
All members of the family contributed to the family's income.
The independence of the small farmer depended on the labor of women and children.
The high birthrate in part reflected the need for as many hands as possible on colonial farms.
Farmers grow food for their own consumption and acquire land to pass it on to their sons.
The consumer revolution and expanding networks of Atlantic trade drew more farmers into production for the market.
More marriages became lifetime commitments as the population grew and the death rate declined.
Free women were expected to be good wives and mothers.
Male domination took on more and more social reality.
The law mandated that estates must be passed on to the oldest son in several colonies.
The opportunities that existed for women in the early period waned as colonial society became more structured.
The courts in Connecticut were informal and disorganized in the 17th century.
It was necessary to have a lawyer in court in the 18th century.
Women were barred from practicing as attorneys.
Both men and women did different kinds of work in the 17th century because of the desperate need for labor.
The division of labor was solidified in the 18th century.
Women's work included cooking, cleaning, sewing, making butter, and assisting with agricultural chores.
The difference between a family's selfsufficiency and poverty was often spelled by the work of the wives and daughters.
The popular adage was true.
Even as the consumer revolution reduced the demands on many women by making available store-bought goods previously produced at home, women's work seemed to increase.
More time was spent on child care and domestic chores as a result of the lower infant mortality.
All family members had to contribute to family income because of the demand for new goods.
The work was exhausting for most women.
Mary Cooper, a Long Island woman, wrote in her diary that she was dirty and distressed.
The area that would become the United States was home to a wide variety of peoples and different kinds of social organization.
The political and economic life of every colony was dominated by elites.
Large numbers of colonists had greater opportunities for freedom, such as access to the vote, the right to worship as they please, and an escape from oppressive government.
The highest per capita income in the world was probably enjoyed by free colonists.
The colonies' economic growth contributed to a high birthrate.
Many others were confined to either partial freedom of indentured servitude or the complete absence of freedom in slavery.
Both timeless longings for freedom and new and unprecedented forms of unfreedom had been essential to the North American colonies' remarkable development.
The statement should be considered with respect to men and women, whites and blacks, andrich and poor.
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King Philip was the chief of the Wampanoags.
He was killed in a war against the English in which he objected to their attempts to convert Indians to Christianity.
The conflict began in 1675 with an Indian uprising.
White New Englanders were given more freedom and the Indians were dispossessed of the region.
The policy of Great Britain is to regulate the economies of colonies to benefit the mother country.
The English Parliament passed a law in 1650 to control colonial trade and bolster the mercantile system.
The English and the Iroquois nations formed an alliance in the 1670s.
The Yamasee and Creek Indians Revolt was caused by rising debts and slave traders' raids against Carolina settlers.
Many Indians were sent to Florida.
Early proponents of abolition of slavery and equal rights for women were members of a religious group in England and America.
A large agricultural enterprise used unfree labor to produce a crop.
Berkeley had failed to protect settlers from Indian raids and did not allow them to occupy Indian lands, which led to the revolt led by Nathaniel Bacon.
The British throne was taken from James II in 1688 by a coup engineered by a small group of aristocrats.
The rights of Englishmen were inscribed into law in a series of laws enacted in 1689.
The English regulatory board was established in 1675.
The consolidation of the New England colonies and later New York and New Jersey reverted to individual colonial governments three years later.
All English Protestants were allowed to worship without restriction.