ChAPTER 11 -- Part 10: The First Global Civilization: The Rise
Most peasants didn't own the land they worked on.
They were tenants, sharecroppers, or migrant laborers who were required to give more of their harvests to the estate owners.
In the first phase of Abbasid rule, the Islamic contribution to artistic expression focused on mosques and palaces.
Learning in the Muslim domain focuses on the sciences and mathematics.
Recovering and preserving the learning of the ancient civilizations of the Mediterranean and Middle East were the main tasks in the early Abbasid period.
Much of Greek learning was lost to the peoples of western Europe.
The priceless writings of the Greeks on key subjects such as medicine, algebra, geometry, astronomy, and ethics were saved thanks to Muslim and Jewish scholars.
Greek writings found their way into Christendom from Spain.
The authors who were rescued in this way were Aristotle, Hippocrates, Ptolemy, and others.
The rise of Arab traders and merchants as the carriers of goods and inventions was paralleled by the ideas transmitted by scholars working in Arabic.
The Indian system of numbers was learned by Muslim invaders.
They were carried from India to the Middle Eastern centers of Islamic civilization.
The Indian numerical system was sent across the Mediterranean to Italy.
Indian numbers were important to the early modern Scientific Revolution in western Europe.
The rise of Islamic civilization from the 7th to 9th centuries was preserved.
There was no precedent in human history.
The largely nomadic peoples from an Arabian back contributed to learning, invention, and artistic creativity.
The water built one of the greatest empires of the preindustrial world, which was carried by their armies and religious teachers to other civiliza, which laid the basis for the first truly global civilization.
The patchwork of linguistic groups, religions, cially Christianity and Judaism, Arab culture had nurtured Islam, and ethnic types.
One of the great universal religions of humankind has never before been done by a single civilization.
The influence of this new creed in that surrounded the pools of sedentary agriculture and urban life has been felt by many nomadic cultures of Islamic law.
The region's roles in those reversals were far off in the future.
In the short run, Islamic merce, in and between the Indian Ocean and Mediterranean Sea, ushered in an age of unparalleled nomadic expanded greatly.
There are many accounts of Muhammad's life and the rise of Islam in the surveys of Ira M. Lapidus.
What are the most important social bonds?
What were the main reasons for converting to Islam?