In the fifteenth century, the cosmopolitan city-states of Mogadishu, Pate, Lamu, Mombasa, and especially Kilwa enjoyed a worldwide reputation for commercial prosperity and high living.
da Gama wanted to build a Portuguese maritime empire in the Indian Ocean.
The sultan of Malindi agreed to a trading alliance with the Portuguese.
The sultan of Mombasa was tricked into commercial agreements.
The cities of the Swahili rulers were bombarded and attacked.
Between 1502 and 1507 the Portuguese built forts at the southern port cities of Kilwa, Zanzibar, and Sofala.
The foundation of Portuguese commercial power on the Swahili coast was served by fortified markets and trading posts.
Commercial fortunes were not expected in the south because of the Portuguese presence.
The town economies crumbled because the residents deserted the towns rather than accept Portuguese commercial restrictions.
Many of Kilwa's people moved to northern cities.
The gold flow from inland mines to Sofala slowed.
The Portuguese were prevented from taking control of the coastal trade.
The collapse of Portuguese influence in Africa was brought about by the pressures from the northern European maritime powers and local African rebellions.
There was only a Portuguese presence in the far south and west coast.
The old town of Lamu is an example of the mixture of African, Arab, and European influences that shaped Swahili.
Most of the inhabitants of Lamu are Muslims.
It became wealthy from the East African slave trade, as evidenced by a few remaining large merchants' houses made from coral stone and fitted with elaborately carved wooden doors.
Three hundred or more years ago, these homes had running water and indoor plumbing, and Europeans still threw the contents of chamber pots into the street.
Some of the buildings in this photo were three stories or more high, with open-walled rooms at the top through which cool breezes blew.
The upper stories of some houses had passageways connecting to other buildings so that Muslim women could visit their neighbors without going out into the street.
Indian Ocean trade items, including fine porcelain from China, were on display inside.
There is evidence of the European presence on the island.
The Portuguese were in charge of Lamu's trade from 1505 to 1652.
The island fell under British rule in 1890 after the Germans claimed it as part of their East German Protectorate.
The British built a number of buildings along the waterfront after they closed the slave market.
He would drive his car from one end of the harbor to the other in a grand display of the imperial presence.
The buildings in this image are very close together, with only a narrow alley between them.
The Portuguese writer, government agent, and traveler Duarte Barbosa made two voyages to India.
He worked as an interpreter and translator for five years in Cochin and Cannanore in India before returning to Lisbon in 1506.
He was the Portuguese government's chief scribe in the factory of Cannanore, which was a warehouse for the storage of goods, not a manufacturing center, on his second trip to India in 1511.
Barbosa went back to Portugal in 1516.
He embarked on his greatest adventure in September 1519 with Ferdinand Magellan.
Barbosa took joint command of the expedition, but was killed in the Philippines less than a week after Magellan, on May 1, 1521.
It was based on his observations.
The geographical information in the book is very accurate, and it was first published in Italian.
The merchants who sold these wares to the Moors were pleased with the price they paid for gold.
The Moors of Sofala sold these wares to the Heathen of the Kingdom of Benametapa, who gave them gold in exchange for the cloths.
The Moors have a great store of ivory which they sell in the Kingdom of Cambaya at five or six cruzados the quintal.
They sell some ambergris, which is brought to them from the Hucicas.
Some of the Moors speak Arabic, but the majority of them are black and tawny.
They wear cotton and silk cloths from the waist down, as well as capes and turbans on their heads.
They eat millet, rice, flesh and fish.
Sea horses, which come out on the land to graze, which horses always move in the sea like fishes, and the ivory is better than that of elephants, being whiter and harder, are found in this river as far as the sea.
There are many wild elephants in the country near Sofala, which the country-folk don't know how to tame.
It is a land of hills and plains.
The Moorish town of Kilwa is located on an island hard by the mainland which is called Kilwa, and is well arranged in streets with many flat roofs.
The doors are carved from wood.
There are many channels of sweet water around it.
There is a Moorish king over it.
They trade with Sofala, whence they bring back gold, and from here they spread all over.
The King of Kilwa was the most powerful king in the Moors and he was subject to our Lord's expedition to discover India.
There was a lot of gold in this town, as no ships came to this island without first coming to this island.
The town was taken by force from the king as he refused to obey the Lord.
The king fled from the island and His Highness ordered that a fort be built there, and kept it under his rule and governance.
He ordered that it be pulled down as it was not worth anything to him and it was destroyed by Antonio de Saldanha.
There is a fair town on the mainland named Malindi, which is located along a strand.
It has a Moorish king over it, and it has many fair stone and mortar houses of many storeys, with plenty of windows and flat roofs.
There is a well laid out place.
Others of them have turbans on their heads that are folded like cloaks and waist-bands.
They are great barterers, and deal in cloth, gold, ivory, and divers other wares with the Moors and Heathen of the great kingdom of Cambaya, and to their haven come every year many ships with cargo of merchandise, from which they get a great store of gold.
On one side of the traffic, the merchants make a lot of money, and on the other side, they make a lot of money.
There is a lot of food in this city, as well as divers sorts of fruit, because of the abundance of fruit gardens and orchards.
There are lots of round-tailed sheep, cows and other cattle here, as well as oranges and hens.
The king and people of this place were friends of the King of Portugal, and the Portuguese always find in them great comfort and friendship, and there the ships, when they chance to pass that way, obtain supplies in plenty.
The trans-Saharan slave trade with the Mediterranean Islamic world began in the seventh century, as well as the exchange of peoples captured in local and ethnic wars within subSaharan Africa, testify to the long tradition and continental dimensions of the African slave trade before European intrusion.
All over the world, the enslavement of human beings was practiced.
Sanctioned by law and custom, enslaved people served critical and well-defined roles in the social, political, and economic organization of many African societies.
Domestically, these roles ranged from concubines and servants to royal guards and advisers.
In the Americas, some enslaved people were common laborers.
Slaves were not more important than other trade items, such as gold and ivory, in terms of economics.
The trans-Saharan slave trade was less important than the transatlantic trade over time.
The millions of enslaved Africans forcibly exported to the Americas had a lasting impact on African society and led to a wider use of slaves within Africa itself.
African slavery was influenced by Islamic practices.
African rulers were justified in their belief that prisoners of war could be sold and that captured people were considered chattel, or personal possessions, to be used any way the owner saw fit.
The flow of black people to Europe began during the Renaissance.
Two hundred thousand Africans entered European societies in the 17th and 18th century.
The legal distinction between slaves and servants was not always clear.
In the 18th century, London had more than ten thousand blacks, most of whom arrived as sailors on Atlantic crossings or as personal servants brought from the West Indies.
Most of the people in England were free.
A handsome black person was a rare status symbol.
Black servants were considered too ordinary by the English.
The duke did not want a Negro servant because it was more original to have a Chinese page than to have a black one, according to the duke's daughter.
13 London's black population constituted a well-organized, self-conscious subculture, with black pubs, black churches, and black social groups assisting the black poor and unemployed.
Francis Barber, heir to Samuel Johnson's papers and most of his sizable fortune, was the most famous black person who attained wealth and position.
The large number of blacks who worked in naval and military service in London during the 18th century can be seen in the prints and cartoons of Thomas Rowlandson.
There were interracial marriages.
In 1658, the Dutch East India Company began to allow the importation of slaves into the Cape Colony, which the company had founded on the southern tip of Africa at the Cape of Good Hope in 1652.
The Dutch East India Company colonies in India and Southeast Asia brought the majority of the slaves into the colony.
Most worked long and hard as field hands and at any other menial or manual forms of labor needed by their European masters.
Half of the white men at the Cape had at least one slave, despite the fact that the Dutch East India Company was the largest slave owner in the colony.
The Dutch used a strict racial hierarchy and heavyhanded paternalism to maintain control over enslaved native and foreignborn peoples in the Cape Colony, despite Holland's reputation for religious tolerance and intellectual freedom.
The children of free men and free women were free in Muslim society, but not in southern Africa.
Marriage and family life were almost impossible for slaves in the Cape Colony.
The enslaved in the colony didn't have the opportunity to earn manumission or freedom because there weren't many jobs requiring special skills.
The slave trade expanded in East Africa's savanna and Horn regions during the 18th and 19th century.
Slaves were wanted to work the sugar plantations on the Mascarene Islands, the clove plantations on Zanzibar and Pemba, and the food plantations along the Kenyan coast.
The eastern coast exported people who were enslaved to the Americas.
When the slave trade to North America and the Caribbean declined, the Arabian and Asian markets expanded.
The largest number of enslaved Africans was involved in the trans-Atlantic slave trade.
The forced migration of millions of human beings from the early 16th to the late 19th century is one of the most inhumane, unjust, and shameful tragedies in human history.
The Amerindians were enslaved to work on sugar plantations in the New World.
Africans were brought in by the Spaniards because they were ill suited to sugar production.
A scholar has argued that a pan-European ideology prevailed.
The enslavement of outsiders was allowed by the cultural attitude.
Europeans didn't want to see other Europeans doing slave labor.
Africans had no problem selling Africans to Europeans, according to this theory.
Russian boyars treated their serfs with casual indifference and cold contempt, French aristocracy looked on their peasants with cold contempt, and English landlords exploited their Irish peasants with merciless severity.
There is a pan-European ideology that opposed the enslavement of white Europeans.
The flow of white enslaved Slavic peoples from the Balkans into the eastern Mediterranean continued during the same period.
Blackness and menial slavery were associated in the Muslim and Arab world by the tenth century.
The majority of enslaved persons in the Islamic world were white, but not all of them were black.
After the arrival of tens of thousands of sub-Saharan Africans in the Iberian Peninsula during the fifteenth century, Christian Europeans began to make a strong association between slavery and black Africans.
The answer seems to be related to African agriculture.
Farmers had a hard time using draft animals because of the tsetse fly and high concentrations of oxides in the soil.
Most of the work had to be done with a hoe.
It was low in productivity.
The individual's economic value to society was less than that of a European peasant because of low agricultural productivity in Africa.
The slaves in the Americas were more productive than the Africans.
European slave dealers were willing to pay a higher price than African slave dealers were willing to pay.
African enslavement can be explained by the incidence of disease in the Americas.
Between 30 and 50 percent of Europeans were exposed to Malaria and died from it, and smallpox took a terrible toll on Native Americans.
Africans had developed immunity to both diseases, and in the Americas they had the lowest mortality rate of any people, making them the most suitable workers for the environment.
The Portuguese founded a sugar colony in Brazil in 1551 after colonization began in the early 1530s.
Between 1551 and 1575, the Portuguese delivered more African slaves to Brazil than to British North America.
The slave trade was dominated by Portugal until 1600, but the Dutch, French, and English took over in the 17th century.
Until the British House of Commons abolished the slave trade in 1807, England was the leading carrier of African slaves.
The sources of slaves were determined by population density and supply conditions along the West African coast.
Slavers moved down the West African coast from Senegambia to the more densely populated hinterlands of the Bight of Benin.
The major coast for Portuguese slavers was established by the abundant supply of Africans to enslave in the south of the Congo River.
Exchange routes were partly determined by the wind patterns.
The swiftest crossing was from the African port nearest the latitude of the intended American destination.
Portuguese and British merchants sailed from the Bight of Benin to the Caribbean.
Most of the enslaved Africans were intended for sugar and coffee plantations in the Caribbean and Brazil.
African slaves produced 26 percent and Portuguese slaves 70 percent.
Luanda and Benguela are two major ports on the coast of Africa.
Through trade with African dealers, the Portuguese secured the majority of their slaves.
The inland markets were run by Africans.
Most Portuguese shipments went to satisfy the Brazilian demand for slaves.
The horrible voyage under appalling and often deadly conditions of enslaved Africans across the Atlantic to the Americas was called the so-called.
The voyage across the Atlantic to the Americas was a nightmare for enslaved Africans.
Brazil imported the most African slaves from 1501 to 1865.
The British, French, Dutch, and Danish colonies of the Caribbean had more slaves imported from Africa than the larger colony of Brazil.
The stench of the hold was so bad that it was dangerous to remain there for any time, and some of us were allowed to stay on the deck for the fresh air.
The close proximity of the place and the heat of the climate added to the number in the ship, which was so crowded that each had barely room to turn himself.
Many of the slaves died because the air became unsuitable for respiration from a variety of smells.
The situation was made worse by the fact that the chains became insupportable and the children were almost suffocated by the filthy tub of human waste.
A British army officer sketched a scene of everyday life in Brazil in the latenineteenth century.
The person's hands were free for other use because of their ability to balance large burdens on the head.
There is a musician on the left of the picture.
A woman gives money to a man with a holy image in return for being allowed to kiss it.
We don't know if the peddlers were free or self-employed.
The American market would have been depressed by a flood of slaves if Portuguese merchants had kept a steady trickle of slaves from the African interior to Luanda and across the ocean to Brazil.
People from the provinces traveled to Rio to buy slaves.
The Rio slave market was home to approximately 10,000 Angolans per year.
The British slave trade was dominated by the English ports.
The world's greatest slave-trading port was in the 18th century.
Small and cohesive merchant classes were influential in all three cities.
Huge stores of industrial products for export, growing shipping industries, and large amounts of ready cash for investment abroad can be found in the cities.
Slave ships from Bristol plied their way along the Gold Coast looking for African traders who were willing to give them slaves.
British ships carried textiles, gunpowder and flint, beer and spirits, British and Irish linens, and woolen cloth to Africa.
A collection of goods were grouped together.
A collection of British goods would be traded for a slave or a quantity of gold, ivory, or dyewood.
European traders used two systems for exchange.
They established factory-forts on the Gold Coast.
The fortified trading posts proved to be useful forfending off European rivals.
A process for trading goods in which European ships brought traders and slaves out to the ships.
A European slave trader talks about the exchange of goods for slaves brought to him by the African on Goree Island.
The shore method of buying slaves allowed the ship to move quickly.
The final prices of those enslaved depended on their ethnic origin, their availability when the shipper arrived, and their physical health when offered for sale in the West Indies or the North or South American colonies.
The supply of slaves for the foreign market was controlled by a small, wealthy African merchant class or a state monopoly.
Slave raiding was expensive and only black African entrepreneurs with large capital and labor could afford to finance it.
The slave trade that the British, as well as the Dutch, Portuguese, French, Americans, and others, participated in was part of a larger trading network known as the triangle trade.
They headed across the Atlantic on the second leg of the voyage after filling their ships' holds with enslaved people.
When they reached the Americas, the merchants unloaded their human cargo and used the profits to purchase raw materials such as cotton, sugar, and indigo, which they then transported back to Europe.
The economies and cultures of the Portuguese and Spanish colonies of South America and the Dutch, French, and British colonies of the Caribbean and North America were impacted by the enslavement of African people.
On the sugar plantations of Mexico and the Caribbean, the cotton plantations of North America, and the silver and gold mines of Mexico, enslaved Africans not only worked in the mines and fields but also filled skilled, supervisory, and administrative positions and performed domestic service.
African slaves and their descendants influenced many aspects of American culture, such as language, music, dance, and diet.
The White House and Capitol building were built with slave labor.
The expansion of capitalism and the industrialization of Western societies were related to the traffic in African people.
The book of Acts is open in this 1789 portrait.
Most of the people who died in the slave trade are hidden.
The best known African slave is probably Olaudah Equiano.
Equiano says in his book that he was born in Nigeria.
All of the people in his village shared family lands.
When the adults were out in the fields, strangers broke into the family compound and kidnapped the eleven-year-old and his sister.
It took six months for Olaudah's home to be found.
Equiano's first master took him to Jamaica, to Virginia, and then to England, where he was placed in the care of a kind family.
He was given the rudiments of an education by them.
Equiano served in the Royal Navy as a captain's boy.
Equiano's master told him to read, study, and learn basic mathematics when he returned to England.
He sold Equiano to Robert King, who was a rum and sugar merchant.
King paid Equiano to work as a clerk in King's warehouse and as a longshoreman at sea, where he developed good navigation skills.
Equiano started buying and selling small goods in the islands and mainland ports.
King signed the deed of manumission for Equiano to buy his freedom.
Equiano had been a slave for ten years.
He had a strong constitution and a strong character.
His faith kept him going.
The brutal slavery he saw in the West Indies and the vicious racism he experienced in the North American colonies were things Equiano hated.
He had many white friends and respected Robert King's fairness.
He was involved in the black communities in London and the West Indies.
He spoke to large crowds in the industrial cities of Manchester and Birmingham in England, arguing that abolition was in the business interests of manufacturers, as Africa was a huge, virtually unexplored market for English cloth.
Equiano advanced the cause of abolition ten years before the Slave Trade Act was passed.
Some questions about Equiano's African origins and his experience of the Middle Passage have been raised by recent scholarship.
African slaves were captured in the interior and traded to European merchants and slave-ship captains along the coast.
The Kongo, for example, made enormous profits from the slave trade, while other societies, such as the Ibo, were unfortunate victims.
Portuguese priests brought Christianity to the Kongo Kingdom in 1491.
The entire royal family converted.
Slavery existed in the Kongo before the Portuguese arrived.
The kingdom's survival was threatened by the slave trade.
The king of Portugal, Joao VI, was asked to stop the trade.
Dom Joao should know how our Kingdom is being lost.
Since the merchants are taking every day our natives, we don't know how bad the damage is.
We need your help and assistance in this matter.
William was employed by the Dutch East India Company at Elmina Castle after arriving in West Africa in 1688.
He gives a detailed account of the African slave trade around the port city of Fida.
The Customs of the King is the first business of one of our Factors when he comes to Fida.
License to Trade is free after that.
We have to buy the King's whole stock of Slaves at a set price before we can deal with any person.
The Victors sell most of the Slaves that are offered to us as prisoners of war.
The Iron with the Arms or Name of the Companies lies in the Fire and is marked on the Breast.
John Adams was an English ship captain who made ten voyages to Africa between 1786 and 1800.
20,000 slaves are sold annually here, and 16,000 of them are natives of one nation called Ibo.
Every five or six weeks, several villages located on the banks of the rivers and creek in the interior, where the slaves of the Ibo nation are obtained, will hold a fair where African traders can purchase them.
African traders increase the quantity of their merchandise by obtaining from their friends, the captains of the slave ships, a considerable quantity of goods on credit.
The time of departure is evening, when they are accompanied by the noise of drums, horns, and gongs.
They usually return at the end of the sixth day, bringing with them 1,500 or 2,000 slaves, who are sold to Europeans the evening after their arrival, and taken on board the ships.
A doctor from Portugal gives a detailed account of the conditions of enslaved Africans in Luanda.
The enslaved peoples are clearly treated as chattel.
The dirt floor of the compound is the dwelling place of the slave, and he is exposed to harsh conditions and bad weather, and at night there are only a lean-to and some sheds.
Their food continues to be hard to find.
When they reach a port.
The terrified slaves are kept for weeks and months in this miserable and deprived condition, and many of them die.
Ten or twelve thousand people arrive at Luanda each year, but only six or seven thousand are transported to Brazil.
A group of captives met at a restaurant on their way to Tette.
The slaves were captured in the interior and were on their way to Tete.
Europeans obtained guns from the slave trade.
Some of the rules and procedures followed by Africans and Europeans while engaging in the slave trade can be found in Sources 2 and 3.
In addition to what you have learned in class and in this chapter, write a short essay about the nature of the slave trade along the African coast.
Africans had technology that was suited to their environment.
They had cultivated a wide variety of plant foods, developed plant and animal husbandry techniques, and mined, smelted, and otherwise worked a great variety of metals over the centuries.
European goods, most notably firearms, American tobacco and rum, and Portuguese brandy, presented no novelty to Africans, but were desirable because of their low prices.
African slaves, ivory, gold, pepper, and animal skins were exchanged for other goods.
Portuguese traders brought Portuguese designs to commission this ivory saltcellar after contact with the Sapi people of present-day Sierra Leone.
The object's basic features -- a spherical container and separate lid on a flat base, with men and/or women supporting, or serving as, beams below -- are distinctly African.
Two noblemen are facing forward and two attendants are in profile.