He lured the men and women away from their local centers of power marbles, mosaics, inlaid woods, gilt, silver, silk, and velvet and into a lavish baroque style with richly colored of the nobility.
Pierre Seguier, who was a member of capacity, could house 5,000 people and France's new nobility could serve thousands more visitors each day.
Seguier's offi ce is a representation of acres of groves, walks, canals, pools, terraces and formal robes he wears.
It was arch.
His face shows a sense of satisfaction with his position in Europe.
monarchs tried to copy it.
Everyone else went to court.
Those already in favor, as well as aspiring favorites, had being unable to comprehend the basic reality of things, to scheme for gifts, patronage, and position.
He explained that winners andlosers derive their opinions from what they can see.
One of France's nobles, Chancellor Seguier, is depicted as a self-assured man.
For eighteen years, Lebrun created decorations for the king's Versailles palace, after he served as painter to Louis XIV.
Despite the grandeur of Versailles, the baroque style of painting and architecture had its critics.
Control and restraint were emphasized by the court.
The appealing paintings of Claude Lor Critics such as Jur Pierreieu, a French Calvinist pastor raine, and Nicolas Poussin, a French artist, lamented that the king is the helped classicism win offi cial.
Both idols to which are sacrifi ced princes, great men and men spent a lot of time in Italy, studying the Renaissance small, families, provinces, cities, fi nances and gener masters.
In this painting, the high status of the lands is framed by the trees under the sky.
The main route to power in Italy is dependent on the approval of and service to the king.
Many hard-toiling, heav are in classic dress, and the scene has calm and dis ily taxed French commoners complaining about liv cipline.
There is a scene designed to show the glory of a pretentious monarch.
To enhance the glory of his court, Louis XIV subsi baroque, the classical style shows a logic that echoed and attracted to Versailles leading French artists the sense of order pervading the Versailles court of the and literary fi gures.
An engine of effi ciency, Colbert toiled endlessly, wrote elegant plays modeled on the ancient Greek, supervising the details of the French tragedies.
The per emy of sciences in 1666 was even more exquisite.
Service dramas were written in rhyme and metered for Jean Racine's keeping with his bourgeois origins.
His family dies, he becomes ministers, gaining ous scholars, social climbers, false priests, and quack high offi ces in the church, marrying well, and securing physicians.
From top positions in the military, Louis and his court had no fear.
They appreciated the formal order and laughed along with other audiences at its satire, which was aimed at humankind in general.
Many members of the elite read historical romances.
This book was published under the name of the author's brother, and it shows how diffi culties women face in expressing their cultural talents.
Writings and memoirs were included in other forms of literature.
The courtier Madame de Sevigne wrote almost two thousand letters to her daughter that reported what the king said and did as well as news of marriages, deaths, gossip, and fads that marked life at the court of Louis XIV.
This calm, balanced Italian landscape by a leading French artist amused monarchs, the visual arts of the period posi exemplifi es seventeenth-century classicism with its emphasis on glorifi ed them.
Control and restraint were favored by the kings.
The final PDF is promoting mercantilistic economic policies.
Colbert protected industries with high that were not defended by Vauban, one tariffs while subsidizing exports and new industries.
It was doomed to be besieged by Vauban.
Colbert of Devolution worked to ensure a worldwide reputation for the uni for French claims in the Spanish Netherlands and formly high quality of French products.
Franche-Comte was subjected by him.
When victory seemed manufacturing to the most minute regulation and within reach, the United Provinces, England, and Swesupervision joined Spain to prevent France from upsetting the balance of power.
French products were praised for organizing the alliance against Louis against the Dutch, who he blamed for change.
Colbert balanced France's trade competitors.
The Dutch stopped the budget and promoted prosperity even though the French invaded.
Dutch diplomacy brought Spain, however, Louis Sweden, Brandenburg, and the Holy Roman Empire embarked on policies that undermined much of what into an alliance against the French.
Colbert had accomplished what Louis had done.
The Peace of Nijmegen was ranked by the king's demands for a standstill and his military ambitions.
Louis paid the high Austrians a price for his religious intolerance by making enemies of the French Protestants.
Louis revoked the Edict against the Huguenots.
He was afraid that he intended to upset the balance of power and dominate the tolerance to the Protestant minority.
Europe formed the Grand Alli lawed Protestantism and ordered Protestant churches against him.
The War of the League ended.
The Duke of Saint-Simon said that the depopu tory at the cost of bloodshed and misery was the ultimate result of the reversal.
The War of the Spanish Succession was the ruin of our commerce.
Although Hugue and the Grand Alliance defeated French and Spanish nots were not allowed to emigrate.
Beaten, impoverished, 200,000 did, taking their wealth and skills with them and facing revolts fueled by despair and opposition to Protestant-friendly areas in Europe and America to taxation, Louis XIV was forced to accept the Peace.
A partnership of Bourbon monarchs in France to a million Huguenots who remained in France went and Spain to be the senior partner.
He had little more than decades of reign, he fought four wars, and he was aggressive.
He had fewer holdings in North America.
He wanted to go to the Utrecht.
He had lost his popularity.
On France's eastern borders, Spanish and Austrian Habsburgs wrote a letter complaining that France's most powerful commercial rivals have been the Dutch for thirty years.
The war minister was put in charge of organizing your authority beyond the bounds of the state in order to increase Louvois.
France's huge military establishment on the model of getting and keeping vain conquests abroad has destroyed half the real strength of your own pitals.
As the coffi n carrying Louis XIV's body was forms and promotions based on merit, some of his abused Vauban (1633-1707) designed sturdy fortifi cations cursed his name.
Spanish France Under Louis lands and German states on France's eastern border are where most of Louis' gains came from.
The map shows the provinces of France.
The state made gains during the reign of Louis XIV, but France's gains were small.
The French state was built into the crown's most important ally by the Sun King.
France XIV modifi ed by preceding state-builders became the model of absolutism for many monarchs.
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While tinued power of the state required some support of the continuing to boost the size of his army, he was aware that the con the governments of his fragmented holdings-- while tinued power of the state required some support of the continuing to boost the size of his army.
The best threats to the lives of French were mitigated by the representative assembly.
He used his army to organize state resources.
Frederick William was unable to survive and defi ne sovereignty as they did in the afford a lavish court like that of Louis XIV.
The two regions differed greatly, and increased his power.
The outcomes of battles of your superior position were affected by the differences.
He told his son to "see strength" east of the Elbe River.
The road to becoming a major player in European politics was different from farms.
In the war against France, most people who worked in the fi elds went into serfdom.
His Berlin court became a great social and cultural center due to his state revenues.
The middle classes are in the towns.
By his death in 1713, Brandenburg-Prussia had declined, failing to gain in numbers and wealth like a respected force in eastern Europe.
Several monarchs decided to change things in their own favor despite all this.
Leopold focused on securing his William, rather than cementing the mini work of poorly managed lands that were weakened by years of control over the Holy Roman Empire.
He was close to the Catholic Church.
He gained the loyalty of the nobles by making weak to keep foreign forces out of his lands or by giving them rights to fight internal opponents.
As elsewhere in Europe, peas did not pay most taxes.
His cities posed a serious challenge to authorities.
He believed that the key to his strength was the Austrian king's death.
He had become one of the most powerful people in Europe.
This map shows the border between the western and eastern European states such as Austria and eastern agrarian zones, which ran from the mouth of the Brandenburg- Prussia to the Adriatic Sea.
Ottoman rulers were able to maintain control on land.
Ottoman armies kept Austria's Habsburgs on the defensive, and armies pushed into Austrian lands and laid siege to the Mediterranean chal the capital, Vienna.
The Portuguese and others' ships were lenged with the help of Poland's king.
The loss shocked Ottoman elites, and for good rea struggled to maintain authority in the face of competition.
After that point, the empire stopped expanding, bandit armies ceased to exist, and the Ottomans' squabbling elites dried up.
Russia's expansion to the west increased its contacts with European commerce and aff airs.
The map shows the political landscape.
The Austrian Habsburgs and eastern Europe made gains against the Ottomans.
The fortunes declined teenth centuries.
They were behind western Europeans when it came to final PDF to printer affairs.
In the process, European foes, the military weaponry and tactics of Otto Asia, establishing fortifi ed settlements, bringing indig man armies and navies lag behind those of their enous peoples under their control.
The stage was set for a dynamic even farther east as the Russian monarchy rose to tsar.
Ivan IV came in the person of "the Terrible" and Peter I came in the person of "the Great" in the 16th century.
He took over most of the Mongols' ter sister from their elder in southeastern Russia.
The best way to bolster ritory was concluded by him.
He began Russia's conquest of Siberia.
He traveled to western autocrat to learn as much as he could about the West's powerful nobles and to create his own service gentry to avoid Europe.
The Time of Troubles was a diffi cult period.
He crushed a revolt in 1698 after Ivan IV's death.
Ivan's feeble bodyguards and silenced critics with a ruthlessness minded son left no that cowed potential troublemakers.
He died in 1598.
He made years of education away and against weak tsars.
A group of leading nobles in 1613 allowed movement within the ranks, but only chose the 17-year-old Michael Romanov through merit.
Peter used the bureaucratic system to rule.
He started a dynasty that ruled Russia for hundreds of years.
Despite the political stability Michael and his Western technicians brought to Russia in large numbers and diate successors brought discontent among those below protected new industries with mercantilistic policies.
Western social customs were introduced to the upper as the authorities restricted the freedom of and middle classes of Russian society.
The Law Code of 1649 merged peasants and slaves into a class of serfs and ern dresses for the purpose of exams.
The nobility were given the power to treat them addition by Peter.
There have been uprisings between the robes that Russian men used to wear.
The tsar's authority and some of his West burned their estates when the patriarch of the Russian Orthodox Church killed them.
Peter took control of the church in the late 1660s and early 1670s after the discontent reached a climax.
The Cossacks in south Russia were led by the Stenka Orthodox Church.
He claimed to the Russian government that he was a seasoned warrior.
Only the boyars and the wealthy lords are included.
Many towns opened Russia's population during Peter's reign, and they became tied down in a system of serfdom bordering on the addition of discontented peasants and the urban slavery.
They were forced to pay poor taxes.
The military service increased in the 17th century.
The Romanov tsars shored up the government's central area, and the administration extended their authority through Peter's efforts to Westernize the nobility.
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The peasants are slaves, subject to the arbitrary power of their lords, wrote a British envoy to Peter's court.
To support his ambitions for territorial expansion, Peter devoted particular attention to his military establishment.
He patterned his conscript army on the model of Prussia.
Recruits were branded with a cross on their left hand to deter desertion.
serfs were assigned to work in mines and manufacturing establishments to provide the military with equipment and arms.
Peter wanted to use his military might.
Peter is carrying a sword and is asserting his authority over potential rivals.
There is a defeated dragon under the feet of his horse.
Over the course of his long reign, the tsar waged numerous military campaigns and designed many reforms to strengthen and modernize his armed forces.
His troops surge to victory in the background of the painting.
Peter tried to take lands that the Ottoman Turks held near the Black Sea.
Peter's armies could not defeat the Russian tsar because he was blessed with divine authority.
It was from the new Sea.
The Nordic country became West to enhance his personal authority under King Gustavus Adolphus court.
Russia became a major player in the early 17th century when it took over as the dominant military power in northeastern Europe.
Not all of the eastern European states fought wars during the sev monarchical absolutism.
It lacked the population between the monarchy and the nobility, which made it difficult to hold its territories.