The tiny, sickly, baby faced Stephens, weighing no more than ninety pounds, left no doubt about the purpose of the Con federacy.
He said that the new government was founded upon.
The newspaper headline announcing jubilant crowds at every stop cheered Carolina's decision to leave the Union.
Lincoln assumed that the southern states were bluffing.
Congress desperately sought a compromise to avoid a civil war.
The compromise line guaranteed the preservation of slavery where it already existed.
The Senate defeated the Crittenden Compromise due to Lincoln's opposition to any plan that would expand slavery.
In February of 1861, twenty- one states sent delegates to a peace conference in Washington, D.C., which was presided over by John Tyler.
A constitutional amendment guaranteeing slavery was the only proposal that generated much interest.
Lincoln was prepared to save the Union but no further.
The Senate passed the amendment on the morning of Lincoln's inauguration day.
The Thirteenth Amendment did not protect slavery when it was adopted by the states.
In February of 1861, Abraham Lincoln boarded a train in Springfield, Illinois, headed to Washington, D.C. for his inauguration.
Lincoln wore a disguise and boarded a secret train in Pennsylvania after being warned of a plot to assassinate the president-elect.
On Inauguration Day, Lincoln and Buchanan rode down Pennsylvania Avenue in a carriage under the protection of rooftop sharpshooters.
The nation had shifted from slavery to Seces sion.
He appealed for the Union, saying we are not enemies but friends.
We shouldn't be enemies.
Though passion may have been strained, it must not break our bonds of affection.
When again touched by the better angels of our nature, the mystic chords of memory will swell the chorus of the Union, stretching from every battlefield and patriot grave to every living heart and hearthstone all over this broad land.
Most white Southerners didn't like what they saw.
On both sides, people assumed that warfare would end quickly and that their lives would go on as usual.
A group of slaves decided that Lincoln's inauguration meant they were free and walked off their owner's plantation.
On his first day in office, President Lincoln found a letter from Major Anderson on his desk.
The time was running out for the Union sol diers.
It would take thousands of federal soldiers to save them.
On April 4, 1861, Lincoln ordered ships to take food and supplies to the soldiers at Fort Sumter, most of whom were immigrants.
Even if it meant using military force, Jefferson Davis was determined to stop any effort to supply the fort.
Davis didn't listen to the warning.
On April 11, Pierre G. T. Beauregard, a Confederate general who studied under Robert Anderson at West Point, sent cases of whiskey and cigars to his professor to convince him to surrender Fort Sumter.
The gifts and request were refused by Anderson.
On the morning of April 12 the cannons began to fire.
Thousands of people rushed to the harbor to watch the shelling after the bright flashes and thundering boom of guns woke the entire city.
The attack on Fort Sumter made the North a unit, according to a letter from New York Democratic Congressman Daniel Sickles to Lincoln's secretary of war.
The man told the reporter that the Confederate assault on Fort Sumter changed everything.
The war of horrors had begun.
The South's irrational fears confirmed the logic of Frederick Douglass' statement that war begins where reason ends.
Californians wanted to join the Union as a free state.
If there were more free states than slave states, Southerners feared that federal protection of their "peculiar institution" would be lost.
As the events unfolded, voters in the northern part of the country preferred the Republican party.
Increasing protective tariffs and funding the development of the nation's infrastructure appealed to northern manufacturers and commercial farmers.
Lincoln won an electoral college victory in 1860.
South Carolina broke away after Lincoln's election.
Six other Lower South states followed.
They formed the Confederate States of America because they believed it was necessary for the preservation of slavery.
Lincoln made it clear in his inaugural address that the North would not invade the South.
The war began when South Carolinians fired on the "stars and stripes" at Fort Sumter.
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After the fall of the Confederate capital ofRichmond, Virginia, in 1865, President Abraham Lincoln visited the war-torn city.
The carriage was swarmed by enslaved blacks who were freed by the war, as well as whites whose loyalties were with the Union.
The start of the Civil War was triggered by the fall of Fort Sumter.
Sentiment in the north was the same.
As the Union army prepared for its first battle, writer Nathaniel Hawthorne reported that his friend, philosopher and friend of many years, Ralph Waldo Emerson, was "breathing slaughter".
The Civil War was not about slavery but about the South's effort to defend states' rights according to many Southerners.
Jefferson Davis, the owner of a huge Mississippi plantation with 113 slaves, claimed that the Rebels fought for the South's right to secede from the Union.
He said that the South needed to defend itself against the "tyrannical majority" who elected Lincoln.
The southern states could retain their slaves if they returned to the Union.
Most white Southerners were convinced that the new president was lying, so none of the Confederate states accepted Lincoln's offer.
The "Black Republican" of the War of the Union was determined to end slavery.
Confederate leaders used to justify war.
One reason for seceding was preserv ing slavery.
The vice president of the Confederate States of America said that white supremacy was the "cornerstone" of the Confederacy.
On April 15, three days after the Confederate attack on Fort Sumter, Lincoln ordered the "loyal" states to supply 75,000 militiamen to suppress the rebellion.
The president assumed that ending the Confederacy would take less than a year.
The volunteers were told to serve for ninety days.
Everyone-- men and women, white and black, immigrants and Native Americans-- were forced to choose sides.
The Union and Confederacy did not receive unanimous support.
100,000 Southerners fought for the Union while 100,000 Northerners fought for the Confederacy.
There were thousands of European vol unteers fighting.
Maryland, Kentucky, and Missouri were slaveholding states along the border between North and South, but Del aware remained firmly in the Union.
Lincoln told a friend that losing Kentucky was almost the same as losing the whole game.
All talk of abolition was muffled by Lincoln because he was so determined to keep slaveholding Kentucky on the Union side.
The Confederates would have surrounded D.C. if Maryland had left the Union.
The state of Kentucky was neutral until September 3, when armies from the Confederate and Union armies moved into the state.
Voters in Kentucky elected a governor who was pro-separatist and a Unionist majority in the legislature.
The pro- Confederate governor was chased by the German militiamen.
All but 100 of the 4,200 men who volunteered to join the Union army were German Americans.
The majority of German immigrants supported the Union.
They fled from German states where elites and military officers pressed democracy because they viewed the Confederacy as undemocratic.
Willich would become a general.
The Civil War was brutal and uncivil in areas of the South where Union sentiment was strong.
In January 1863, a group of Confederate sol diers captured thirteen ragged men and boys and began marching them to Tennessee to be tried for desertion and treason against the Confederacy.
The prisoners did not make it to Knoxville.
Along the way, theDetachment lined up the captives and killed them.
David Shelton had already witnessed his father and brother's deaths when he was executed.
He begged to be spared for his mother's sake, but was killed like the rest.
Similar brutality was witnessed by the northern states.
The Confederacy had eleven states while the Union had twenty- three states after battle lines were drawn.
The population count was 9 million in the Confederacy and 22 million in the Union, of which about 3.5 million were enslaved.
The Con federacy mobilized 80 percent of its military- age white men, a third of whom would die during the four- year war.
The North's superior industrial develop ment was an even greater asset.
7 percent of the nation's goods were produced by the southern states on the eve of the war.
97 percent of the firearms and 96 percent of the railroad equipment were produced by the Union.
The North had an advantage in transportation.
The South had no warships at the start of the war.
The Union's control of the Mississippi River and its larger tributaries was secured by federal gunboats and transports, which provided easy invasion routes into the center of the Confederacy.
The Union navy's blockade of the major southern ports reduced the amount of cotton that could be exported to Britain and France as well as the flow of goods imported from Europe.
There were more wagons and horses in the Union.
Most of the firearms used by the Union forces were turned out by the foundries in the North.
Defending troops have the chance to dig trenches and fortifications, which makes it easier to defend in warfare.
In the Civil War, armies were mauled 90 percent of the time.
If they could hold out long enough, disgruntled northern voters might convince Lincoln and Congress to end the war.
The two sides had different goals.
The Confederacy wanted the world to recognize its independence.
Lincoln said that the United States fought to restore the Union.
As the war began, the future of slavery was not an issue.
The generals were pressured to strike quickly by excited newspaper editors and politicians.
In the summer of 1861, Jefferson Davis told General Pierre T. Beaure to rush the main Confederate army to Manassas Junction, a railroad crossing in northern Virginia.
Hundreds of civilians packed picnic lunches and rode out to Washington, D.C., assuming that the first battle of arms would be short, glorious, and bloodless.
Some of the 37,000 Union recruits who marched to battle on July 21, 1861, broke ranks to eat or drink water from the streams along the way.
Many of them died with the berry juice still on their lips as they fought the Confederates.
The battle gave most of the soldiers their first taste of combat.
Many were confused by the sound of gunpowder and saltpeter, the roar of cannon fire, and the screams of fallen soldiers.
The soldiers had trouble deciding a friend from foe because neither side wore standard- colored uniforms.
The battle was almost won by the Union troops early in the afternoon.
"We fired a volley and saw the Rebels running," wrote a Massachusetts private.
The reinforcements poured in.
"Stonewal" became Jackson's popular nickname, and he would be the most celebrated and feared Confederate field commander.
The army of the Union panicked and fled to Washington, D.C.
The Confederates failed to give chase because they were disorganized and exhausted.
President Lincoln was criticized after the news of the Confederate victory.
Lincoln's ability to make mistakes edge and move forward was a hallmark of his presidency.
He would grow more sure of himself as a wartime leader over time.
The Battle of Bull Run demon made it clear that the war wouldn't be decided in a single stroke.
General Scott, the commander of the Union war effort, devised a three-pronged strategy that called first for the Army of the Potomac, the main Union army, to defend Washington, D.C., and exert constant pressure on the Confederate capital.