Some individuals within the groups already had more authority because of their links with the world of gods and spirits.
The advantages became more significant over time as there were more resources, and these three factors gave individuals advantages in agricultural societies.
Priests and shamans became full-time religious specialists.
The first formal rules of conduct were written by religious specialists in many communities.
The codes required people to defer ence to priests as the representatives of the gods, so that they became an elite group with special privileges, and they threatened di vine punishment for those who broke them.
Material goods that could be stored became significant when the heads of large families or kin groups had control over the labor of others.
The ability to amass more material goods was given by plows, sheep, cattle, sheds, pots, carts and other material goods.
Storage owed wealth to be retained so that there would be larger differences in wealth over time.
The Iceman had two German vaca tioners working on his left shoulder in 1991.
The Iceman was not the only one who came upon a corpse in the Italian Alps.
Someone with him had ice.
The Iceman is usually shot from below and behind.
The Iceman died 5,300 years ago.
The autopsy showed a lot about the man and his culture.
The Iceman hunted as well.
What does the Iceman reveal about the society that he made from grass?
The Iceman's mastery of several technologies is demonstrated by the equipment he discovered.
He had a large copper ax.
He used archery to kill the game.
There were many wooden arrow shafts and two finished arrows in his quiver.
The arrows had flint heads, a sign of stoneworking, and feathers were attached to the ends of the shafts with glue.
He had mastered the basics of ballistics because he knew the value of feathers.
His bow was made of yew, a rare wood in central Europe that is among the best for archers.
There is still a mystery surrounding the Iceman.
Scholars assumed that he was a hapless traveler overtaken in a fierce snowstorm when his body was first discovered.
The artifacts found with the Iceman's body tell a lot about how he lived.
The Iceman's shoes, made with a framework twine stuffed with straw and covered with skin, indicate that he used all parts of the animals he hunted.
Wealth could command labor, as individuals or families could buy the services of others to work for them or impose their wishes through force, hiring soldiers to threaten or carry out violence.
Some people bought others.
Slaves were a source of physical power for their owners, giving them an opportunity to accumulate more wealth and influence.
The ability to exploit animal and human labor was the most important mark of distinction between elites and the rest of the population.
The development of agriculture was intertwined with a hierarchy based on gender.
Men with plows have more power.
Although farming with a hoe was often done by women, plow to resources than women and some agriculture came to be a male task, perhaps because of men's upper-body strength or be men are dominant over other men.
At the same time that cattle were being raised for plows and carts, sheep were being raised for wool.
Spinning and weav ing were done indoors and involved simpler and cheaper tools than plowing; they could also be taken up and put down easily, and so could be done at the same time as other tasks.
With each sex doing some of the necessary labor, plow agriculture increased gender hierarchy.
Men's responsibility for plowing and other agricultural tasks took them outside the household more often than women, giving them opportunities for leadership.
When inheritance systems were established to pass land and other goods on to the next generation, it led to their being favored as inheritors of family land and the right to farm communally held land.
It became difficult for women to survive without male support because of the decrease in women's independent access to resources.
Men wanted to make sure that their sons were theirs, so they restricted their wives' movements and activities.
This was the case among elite families.
Women needed to be mobile for the group to survive, and their labor outdoors was essential.
The labor of animals, slaves, and hired workers could be used for women in families that could afford them.
In some Neolithic societies, women spent more time in the household.
By the second millennium b.c.e., elite women were expected to work at tasks that would not take them beyond the household or away from male supervision, because of the social norms and ideals reinforced by the second millennium b.c.e.
The care of children, the elderly, and small animals were some of the work that non-elite women did.
As wealth was passed down, social and gender hierarchies were improved, as were sexual re lationships, particularly heterosexual ones.
In this painting from the tomb of an official, a man guides a plow through the soil while a woman walks behind him.
The well-to-do man buried in the tomb was depicted in the painting as being worthy of an afterlife.
The gender division of labor and the plow are accurate.