She twisted her body at the spot where the travel writer Pausanias shifted her weight to her right leg while looking into the ruins of the temple of Zeus.
Her left knee is thrust forward, keeping her from falling down.
Dionysus reaches toward complex pose is so perfectly balanced that he would benefit from it as a baby.
Three sculptors from the island of Rhodes created this large group of figures.
It is one of the best examples of Greek sculpture that depicts powerful emotions and dramatic events.
They had not shown any expression of pain or suffering.
With the passing of centuries, exact likenesses became popular, and more and more statues showed intense emotion.
The change was the result of the Peloponnesian War.
The Persian Wars brought confidence and glory while the Peloponnesian War left a bad taste.
Sparta and Athens were the main enemies of most of the Greek city-states.
The long struggle between Sparta and Athens began in 431 b.c.
Each city had its own military forces.
Both parties might resort to war when differences can't be solved by agreement.
Some cities were able to subdue their neighbors temporarily by force of arms, but the defeated communities waited for a chance to regain their independence.
The Greek world was in a constant state of war.
When it was necessary to join together against a foreign foe, the cities refrained from fighting one another.
In the first half of the fifth century b.c., they met the Persian threat through a general alliance.
After Athens became the accepted leader in 478 b.c., it moved to solidify its influence in the Greek world.
The construction of triremes was placed under Athenian command.
The largest fleet to sail the Mediterranean at the time was captured by the city.
After the Persian threat had passed, the League members announced that they would not make any more payments.
Athens threatened to use force if they stopped sending money.
The contributions made to the defense against Persia were turned into a tribute to Athens.
Many of the city-states of mainland Greece were aroused by the Athenians' insistence that their subject cities practice democracy.
The sea power of the Athenian alliance of city-states in the coasts and islands of the Aegean was at odds with the land power of Sparta.
Sparta was able to build a navy that could defeat Athens because of Athenian naval losses in Sicily, as well as money and supplies from the still mighty Persian Empire.
The Spartans decided to support their ally, Corinth, which was involved in a naval war with Athens.
The Athenians took up the challenge with their league of allies.
The city of Athens and its harbor formed a single stronghold.
The Spartans, unbeatable on the battlefield but not equipped for siege warfare, often raided Attica, but could not capture the city or cut its links with the sea.
The Athenians used their navy to raid Sparta and its allies.
Their most serious reversal was caused by disease.
The city was struck by a plague.
The beginnings of western civilization can be traced back to the sea from Egypt to Greece.
He was a victim.
The Athenians were turned into gloom by the plague.
When the Spartans offered terms of Athens and Piraeus compromise and "peace without victory," the Athenian leaders rejected them and held out for a clear-cut triumph.
Hopes were shattered in 413 b.c.
Sparta was able to build a fleet strong enough to challenge the shrunken Athenian navy because of financial aid from the Persians.
Athens was able to hold off the Spartans.
If the Athenians lost one sea battle, they would be doomed.
The defeat took place in the year 405 b.c.
The Athenians were unable to supply themselves by sea because of the protection of their warships.
They gave up all their possessions and became allies of Sparta.
Athens was not the only one to suffer defeat.
The victors and the vanquished were weakened by the loss of men and resources.
Greek civilization in its traditional form never fully recovered from the ruinous struggle, even though Athens eventually returned to democracy and retained its cultural leadership for another century.
The pattern of Greek life could not be restored.
Sparta and Thebes tried to exert leadership.
It was only a matter of time before the Greek cities fell to the foreign powers and surrendered their independence.
The citizens thought politics and civic affairs were separate from themselves and their families.
They found no promise of a better world in their religion.
The Olympian gods may have defended the Greeks against the Persians, but they didn't save them from themselves.
The worship of foreign gods and goddesses, as well as the veneration of kings and queens, were some of the faiths that many people turned to.
The search for truth, the ap peal to reason, and the counsel of moderation did not bring the anticipated satisfactions and happiness.
The leaders of democratic Athens were blamed for bringing on and prolonging the disastrous war.
Sparta and its allies had a different opinion of the world.
The military triumph of the Peloponnesians weakened the democratic cause in most parts of Greece.
The struggle for power was intensified by the memories of social division and civic betrayal during the war.
Greek civilization flourished even as the city-states and their traditional values declined, and the Greeks became more important in the world than ever before.
The kingdom of Macedonia was soon going to end the independence of the citystates.
Under Macedonian leadership, the Greeks would enjoy a brief moment of unity that would allow them to replace the Persians as the dominant nation of the international civilized world.
The country was behind Greece in its political development and was ruled by kings and warrior nobles.
It was larger and richer in resources than any other city-state, and its kings were fond of the Greeks.
Macedonia came under the rule of King Philip II, a shrewd man of broad vision who was determined to gain control of the weak and divided citystates and to lead the Greeks and Macedonians in a united force against the weakened empire of Persia.
He strengthened his army by using the phalanx tactics of the Greeks, improving his weapons, and building up a stronger cavalry force than any city-state possessed.
He was able to bring the nobles of his kingdom into line while he was planning to conquer Greece.
The city-states were prevented from joining forces against Philip.
The eloquent Athenian, Demosthenes, repeatedly warned his fellow citizens.
The traditional reluctance of the city-states to work together, combined with their failure to take the new menace seriously, played into Philip's hands.
Thebans and the Athenians formed an alliance to stop him.
Philip had to decide what remained of Greek independence.
The Macedonian king used his power well.
He became the president of a league of Greek states after moving into the Peloponnesus.
The conduct of foreign policy was left to the Greek cities.
Philip, now at the head of a powerful alliance, vowed to avenge the insults and injuries inflicted on Greek temples and sanctuaries by the invading Persians more than a century before.
Philip was assassinated as he stood at the verge of fulfillment.
Alexander III succeeded his father and proceeded to carry out his father's design.
The combination of Alexander's daring and genius and the heavy weaponry of the Persian Empire succeeded beyond anyone's expectations.
The Persian king's power was broken within four years by his army of about 35,000 Macedonians and Greeks.
Pushing through Persia to the frontiers of India, he was checked only by his own men.
At the age of thirty-three, Alexander died of a disease in the city of Babylon, which he had chosen for his imperial capital.
Alexander didn't want to destroy the cultures of the East because he believed in the superiority of Greek culture.
He wanted to bring the best features of each civilization into a new culture.
He founded cities in the regions he conquered and sent Greeks or Macedonians to colonize them.
He wanted to spread Hellenic ideas and standards over the oriental pattern of life by making Greek the official language and distributing Greek books and works of art throughout his empire.
He married an eastern princess and encouraged intermarriage.
The "One World" was divided after Alexander's death.
The boy fell victim to the power struggles of his father's generals.
Three major states emerged, each ruled by a dynasty of kings descended from one or other of the Greek generals.
The three major dynasties fought each other on a larger scale than the Peloponnesian War.
Alexander's empire fell apart after his death, but most of it remained under the rule of Greek kings, and Greek cities sprang up across the Middle East from Egypt to the borders of India.
The rise of Islam in the seventh century a.d. halted the influence of the Greeks and their culture in the Middle East.
The armies of the citizens were no match for the armies of the kings.
Athens and Sparta bowed to the king that was most powerful at the time.
The Romans gradually took over the eastern Mediterranean during the last two centuries b.c.
The Greeks left their homeland for the East as Alexander's successors needed them as soldiers, officials, and traders.
Greeks were scattered across the world from the coast of Spain to the borders of India by 200 b.c.
They lived side by side with ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt in the Middle East.
The fusion of cultures was never more than an imperfect mixture.
Greek became the international language of business and government so that ambitious nonGreeks could get ahead in those fields.
The ways of the East remained the same.
In Egypt, temples were built and decorated according to age-old tradition, and even the Greek kings were venerated and obeyed by the Egyptians as native pharaohs.
In the long run, the fact that the Greeks were now an internationally domi nant nation could not help but bring about changes in their civilization.
The Greek rulers were able to support researchers and build libraries because of the huge amount of resources they had.
Greek scholars studied the past and present of many Middle Eastern lands.
Hellenistic civilization achieved great things in science and technology, geography, history, and literary scholarship, as well as carrying on the earlier achievements of the Greeks in philosophy and the arts.
The political forms of the Hellenistic world were different from those of the Greek past.
The traditional Greek forms of government were put down by the new order of things.
The only effective means of governing large areas was absolute rule.
The fate of the world was in the hands of great kings.
It was only fitting that the Greeks venerate these mighty monarchs and their queens as living gods and goddesses, more clearly visible, and more powerful to help or harm, than the fading deities of the city-states.
The Greek version of divine kingship is probably different from the other nations' practices.
It fits in well with existing Eastern traditions of rulers who have power by the gods or actual godkings.
The Greeks could not help but be influenced by the Babylonians in the field of religion in the long run.
The Egyptian deities of the Underworld and fertility, Isis and Osiris, were among the non-Greek gods and goddesses of the Hellenistic world.
The Greeks believed that Isis and Osiris were the same deities as their own, and that they had the same powers.
The foreign versions of the gods and goddesses seemed to be more holy and helpful to humans than the native ones.
The spread of Christianity in the Roman Empire was a result of these international cults.
The economy of the Hellenistic age was different from earlier times.
Large-scale production and trade were encouraged by the new political units.
As far as India, the gates of the Greeks were opened as far as the Black Sea.
Huge fortunes were made, banking and finance were expanded, and a kind of capitalism took shape after the new market stimulated enterprise.
The heads of the great states were interested in business.
They made up their expenses by taxing the enterprises.
Many new jobs were created in the cities because of the growth of indus try and trade.
Thousands of peasants moved from the countryside to the urban centers of the Middle East.
Alexander tried to establish many of these cities.
Alexandria, which he founded near the Nile River in Egypt, was the largest and most renowned.
By the beginning of the Christian era, its population may have reached one million, making it larger than imperial Rome.
Alexandria was the economic and cultural hub of the eastern Mediterranean; for centuries, its library and museum were centers of scholarship and scientific study.
The Roman takeover of Egypt in 30 b.c.
is thought to be the end of the Hellenistic era.
Even though the Hellenistic world paid tribute to the Romans, it was not affected by their conquest.
The philosophy, science, literature, and art that the Romans found here was to be passed on to western Europe, as well as the political forms of universal monarchy and divine kingship that were to inspire their own empire.
The Hellenistic world was dominated by Greek civilization.
The Hellenistic legacy was preserved by the empire of Byzantium, even after the Muslim conquest.
The World History Resources Center at http://history.wadsworth.com/west_civ/ offers a variety of tools to help you succeed in this course.