The salt is pumped out of the body by the marine birds and reptiles.
The strategies used by the rats to conserve water were summarized.
The four major functions of the human kidneys are maintained.
The kidneys are the major excretory organs of humans.
The kidneys are the ultimate regulators of blood composition because they can remove unwanted products from the body.
The angiogram shows that the kidneys are well supplied with blood.
The urine is only found in certain parts of the body.
They are partially protected by the lower rib cage on each side of the vertebral column.
The left and right kidneys are slightly different.
The urethra passes through the penis in males and the vagina in females.
In males the urethra carries sperm during ejaculation, but there is no connection between the genital and urinary systems in females.
There are three major parts to a kidneys if it is sectioned longitudinally.
The urine is carried to the bladder by a ureter.
The longitudinal section of a kidneys shows the location of the cortex, medulla, and pelvis.
A picture of the placement of the nephrons.
Each kidneys is made of over 1 million tiny tubules.
Each nephron is made of several parts and is located in different parts of the body.
The inner layer of the glomerular capsule is composed of specialized cells that allow easy passage of molecules, while the blind end is composed of squamous epithelial cells.
The path of blood can be traced by following the arrows.
A nephron has a glomerular capsule, a convoluted tubule, a loop of the nephron, and a collecting duct.
There is a portion of the nephron leading from the glomerular capsule.
This is followed by the collecting duct, which transports urine down through the medulla.
Each nephron has its own blood supply.
The arterioles are one for each nephron and branch into numerous small arteries.
The glomerular capsule surrounds the capillary bed which is called an afferent arteriole.
A second capillary bed surrounds the tubular parts of the nephron after the glomerulus drain into an efferent arteriole.
The veins leading to the inferior vena cava are formed by the peritubular capillaries.
A human excretes between 1 and 2 liters of urine a day.
The process of urine formation begins with a large amount of water and a collection of solutes out of the blood, followed by reabsorption of much of the water, along with other material the body needs to conserve.
The three main processes in urine formation are described in boxes and colorcoded to arrows that show the movement of molecule into or out of the nephron at specific locations.
The urine is composed of substances in the collecting duct.
The cells lining the convoluted tubule have a brush border composed of microvilli, which increases the surface area exposed to the lumen.
The cells are next to the peritubular capillary.
Since the glomerular walls are 100 times more impermeable than the walls of most capillaries, blood pressure can cause small molecule movement from the glomerulus to the inside of the capsule.
The filtrate is too large for the blood cells to be part of, so they remain in the blood as it flows into the efferent arteriole.
The filtrate has the same composition as blood.
If this composition were not changed in other parts of the nephron, death from starvation and dehydration would occur quickly.
Every 40 minutes, the amount of fluid in the Page 180 liters of filtrate are produced daily, which is 60 times more than the amount of blood in the body.
A person would die from urinating if most of the water was returned to the blood.
This is prevented by tubular reabsorption.
Osmosis comes into play here.
The osmolarity of the blood is the same as that of the filtrate within the glomerular capsule, and therefore water from the filtrate into the blood cannot yet occur.
Salts are pumped into the peritubular capillary, and then chlorides follow.
Water moves from the tubule into the blood because of the osmolarity of the blood.
70% of salt and water is reabsorbed at the loop of the nephron.
The blood has many vitamins and minerals in it, mostly at the tubule.
The cells of the convoluted tubule have many microvilli, which increase the surface area, and many mitochondria, which supply the energy needed for active transport.
It is normal for a molecule to be reabsorbed completely if there is enough carrier molecule for it.
If the filtrate contains moreglucose than there are carriers to handle it, it exceeds the transport maximum.
The filtrate has excess sugar in it.
In diabetes, the filtrate has a large amount of glucose, because the liver can't store all the excess.
The increased thirst and frequent urination in people with diabetes are a result of less water being absorbed into the peritubular capillary network.
Urea is a substance that is reabsorbed from the filtrate.
The concentration of urea in the filtrate is the same as in the blood.
The urea concentration is higher after water is reabsorbed.
About half of the urea is reabsorbed.
Substances such as hydrogen ion, uric acid, salts, ammonia, and penicillin are eliminated by tubular secretion.
The process of tubular secretion may be seen as helping rid the body of potentially harmful compounds that were not filters into the glomerulus.
Renin is a substance produced by the kidneys.
The filtrate is reabsorbed across the wall of the tubule.
The excretion of a hypertonic urine is dependent on the reabsorption of water from the loop of the nephron and the collecting duct.
The first water channels were discovered in 1992.
A descending limb and an ascending limb make up a long loop of the nephron.
Salt diffuses out of the lower portion of the ascending limb, but the upper portion extrudes salt out into the tissue of the outer renal medulla.
As fluid moves up the limb, less and less salt is available.
The concentration of salt is greater in the direction of the inner medulla because of these circumstances.
The ascending limb is impermeable to water.
Salt diffuses and is transported out of the ascending limb of the loop of the nephron into the renal medulla, as well as urea leaking from the collecting duct and entering the tissues of the renal medulla.
Water is drawn out of the descending limb and the collecting duct by these actions.
The water is returned to the cardiovascular system.
The inner medulla has the highest concentration of solutes.
Salt does not start moving until fluid reaches the thick portion of the ascending limb.
The lower portion of the collecting duct is believed to leak urea, which contributes to the high solute concentration of the inner medulla.
Water leaves the descending limb along its entire length because of the osmotic gradient.
The collecting duct encounters the same osmotic gradient as the filtrate.
The urine within the collecting duct becomes hypertonic when water diffuses out of the duct.
Consider its name to understand the action of this hormone.
Blood volume and pressure rise, and a decreased amount of urine is produced.
Adding more aquaporin water channels into the epithelial cells of the tubule and collecting duct will allow more water to be reabsorbed.
Significant information about the general state of one's health is provided by this analysis.
A complete urinalysis consists of three phases of examination.
The urine color, clarity, and odor are described in the physical examination.
Pale yellow is the color of fresh urine.
The color may be almost odorless to dark yellow.
Dark brown urine can be produced by disorders of the lymphatic system.
The urine may be clear or cloudy.
A cloudy urine sample is indicative of abnormal levels ofbacteria.
A foulsmelling urine odor is a symptom of a urinary tract infection.
There is a fruity odor in the urine.
The consumption of garlic, curry, asparagus, and vitamins C and E affect the smell of urine.
The chemical examination is done with a dipstick, a thin strip of plasticimpregnated with chemicals that change color upon reaction with certain substances present in urine.
A standardized color chart is used to compare the color change on the dipstick.
There are dipsticks that can be used to determine the specific gravity, pH, and contents of the urine.
A high value may be a result of dehydration or diabetes.
There is a direct effect on the type of stones formed in patients with kidney stone disease.
Diabetes is suspected if present.
It is possible to have high levels of bilirubin or urobilinogen.
The presence of ketones in the urine can be a sign of diabetes or a low-carbohydrate diet.
A lot of urine is a sign of damage to the kidneys.
The presence of nitrogen compounds is a sign of urinary tract infections.
Blood can show up in the urine when a woman is menstruating.
Blood in the urine at other times may be indicative of a disease.
A high urine WBC count is a sign of abacterial infections in the urinary tract.
The urine is analysed under a microscope.
An abnormal amount of cellular material is found in the urine when there isrenal disease.
The urinary casts are formed by the abnormal coagulation of the proteins in the tubule.
The presence of crystals in the urine is a sign of problems with metabolism.
The federal government uses urinalysis to screen potential employees for the use of illegal drugs.
A urinalysis test can show problems with the body's systems.
The results of the test show that the patient may have diabetes.
If an individual doesn't drink a lot of water on a certain day, the pituitary releases ADH, which causes more water to be reabsorbed and less urine to form.
If an individual drinks a lot of water and does notspire much, ADH is not released.
There is more water and more urine.
Coffee and alcohol increase the flow of urine by interfering with the action of ADH.
The increase in ADH production at night allows for longer periods of sleep without the need to wake up.
Most of the sodium is reabsorbed at the convoluted tubule, and a small amount is taken up by the ascending limb of the loop of the nephron.
The rest is absorbed from the tubule and duct.
Salt reabsorption regulates blood volume and pressure.
The reabsorption of water is followed by the reabsorption of sodium ion.
The bloodstream has angiotensinogen in it.
Angiotensin II is caused by Renin from the kidneys.
Angiotensin II acts on the adrenal cortex to produce aldosterone, which causes a rise in blood pressure.
The effect of ANH is to promote the excretion of Na+--that is, natriuresis.
Blood volume and blood pressure decrease when Na+ is removed.
The water balance in blood is regulated by the kidneys.
The kidneys excrete or reabsorb other ion in the form of magnesium, K+), and HCO as needed.
The function of cells is influenced by the pH.
Good health depends on the regulation of pH.
The excretion of carbon dioxide by the lungs helps keep the pH within normal limits because when carbon dioxide is exhaled, this reaction is pushed.
The respiratory control center and the rate and depth of breathing increase when the blood pH decreases.
The amount of bicarbonate ion in the blood increases when the respiratory control center is depressed.
Only the kidneys can rid the body of a wide range of acidic and basic substances.
The buffer/breathing mechanism is slower-acting than the kidneys.
If the blood is acidic, hydrogen ion are removed.
If the blood is basic, hydrogen ion are not reabsorbed.
The acidic nature of urine shows that excess hydrogen ion are usually removed.
Ammonia is produced in tubule cells by the deamination of amino acids.
The buffering of hydrogen ion in urine is done with the aid ofphosphate.
The excretory organs of most animals are specialized.
The planarians use flame cells to rid the body of water.
Malpighian tubules in insects take up water from the hemolymph.
The water is absorbed by the gut.
The regulation of smootic is important to animals.
To maintain normal solute and water concentration in body fluids, most must balance their water and salt intake and excretion.
The fishes excrete a hypotonic urine when they take in salts at the gills.
Animals have adapted to extreme environments.
The desert kangaroo rat can survive on water that has salt in it.
The arterioles are formed by the branches of the renal artery.
The ascending limb of the nephron extrudes salt in order to excrete a hypertonic urine.
The innerrenal medulla has the highest concentration of solute, since urea leaks from the lower end of the collecting duct.
Water diffuses out of the descending limb and the collecting duct because of a countercurrent mechanism.
The water-salt balance of the blood is maintained by three hormones.
Water is reabsorbed and blood pressure rises when Aldosterone causes the kidneys to retain Na+.
The blood pH is within normal limits.
HCO - 3 is needed to maintain the pH at 7.4.
Pick the best answer for the question.
Uric acid requires more energy to produce than urea a.
The freshwater fishes excrete salt across their gills.
The a. peritubular capillary is the blood vessel that goes through the human kidneys.
The glomerular capsule is associated with excretion of a hypertonic urine.
In order to reduce high blood pressure, the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system can be stopped.
Drug therapy usually prevents the angiotensin-converting enzyme from converting angiotensin I to angiotensin II.
Diabetes insipidus is a form of diabetes that is new to most people.
Everyone tends to think of the type related to diabetes when the word is used.
Diabetes can be type 1 or type 2.
Due to a lack of ADH in the body, the kidneys are unable to perform their function.
The kidneys are affected in both types of diabetes.