The release of the soul from the endless cycle of rebirths was stressed in the later books of the Vedas.
The means by which this was achieved were moderate asceticism and meditation.
The orthodox Hindu schools taught that the soul was real and its ultimate purpose was to restore religious harmony with the universal divine essence from which it had come.
The world was an extension of a single reality that encompassed everything.
Buddhism in India was weakened by economic changes that altered the social circumstances that favored the new religion.
The fall of the Han Empire in the 3rd century c.e.
was critical to the decline of the Rome-China trading axis.
It made large-scale traders more dependent on local kings and warrior households, which were the main allies of the brahmans, and it undermined the position of merchant groups that had been major patrons of Buddhism.
The pattern of trade in the ancient eurasian World was related to the great expan centuries b.c.e.
and included much of the trade between the main centers.
Exchange developed from Rome and the Mediter Chinese silks and porcelains were carried the entire length of the ranean Sea to China and Japan.
The trading networks that made the network to be sold in markets at the other edge, in Rome, included both those established between ports con example.
High-priced luxury goods such as spices and exchanges were usually carried over the great dis nected by ships and sea routes.
By the last centuries b.c.e., a vibrant oceanic trading system was in place across the Afro-Eurasian continents, and the Indian subcontinent was central as a producer and consumer in this vast network of contact and exchange.
The map provides an overview of the great trading network in the 3rd century b.c.e.
The main centers of production, the goods exported overland and overseas, and the main direc tions of trade in these products are shown.
The Dynasty that succeeded the supporters of Hinduism sealed the fate of Buddhism in India.
One of the Buddhist's demise was gradual and only occasionally accelerated by violent persecution.
After the fall of the Guptas in north India and the Hindu kingdoms in the south, the Mauryas in the 3rd century lost their Buddhist strength.
Under Ashoka, Mauryas had.
The Guptas brought peace and prosperity to a large part of north India.
The brahmans' roles as sanctifiers and advisors to kings were restored after the family's rise to power.
The princes of the imperial court and the sons of local notables became more prominent than the Gupta emperors in the area controlled by the brahmans.
The ruler lavishes presents on brahmans that are linked to the court.
With their power base and sources of patronage restored, brahman priests, poets, scholars, and patrons of the arts became the driving force behind an era of splendid achievement in literature, music, art, architecture, and the natural sciences.
The great temples that rose above the rapidly growing urban centers were the most dramatic expressions of the Hindu resurgence.
The temples helped spur urban growth.
Merchants, artisans, servants, and laborers migrated to the towns where the temples were located to serve the growing number of pilgrims who journeyed to the sacred sites.
The stone gateways and sanctuary towers were carved to honor the Hindu gods and goddesses.
In eastern and South India, the temple towers teemed with sculptures of deities and friezes of their exploits; with animals, which were often the vehicles or manifestations of major gods or goddesses; and with humans engaged in all manner of activities, including sexual intercourse.
The ancient Greeks valued the accurate representation of Hindu art more than the symbolism.
The god or goddess depicted in the sculpture stood for more than one thing, including creation, destruction, fertility, and death.
The rise of the Gupta dynasty initiated one of the great ages of Indian literary achievement.
In the Gupta period and the centuries that followed, many of the great classics of Sanskrit, the sacred and classical Indian language, and Tamil, one of the major languages of the south, were written.
The poet Kalidasa lived in a time when Gupta power was at its peak.
He provided vivid pictures of life in the Gupta age in his poems.
The smoke of incense from open windows will cause your body to grow fat.
The palace peacocks will welcome you with a dance.
The pavement is marked with red dye from the feet of women.
The nature of time, space, and causality were written by Hindu scholars in the classical era.
Many of the arguments contained in these works are similar to those found in modern science.
The era of the Hindu revival was a time of great Indian achievement in mathematics and sciences.
The Hindu resurgence of the early centuries was associated with them.
Most human societies use the temple as the core of the system of numbers.
The streets of Madura, one of the oldest cities in India, are called "Arabic" because they were built in We in the "West" and symbolizing the structure merchants and scholars came to be known and used in Europe.
Major discoveries in medicine were made by Indians.
Hospitals, surgical techniques, and sophisticated treatments for a variety of illnesses were developed by them.