One side of the molecule has a negative charge and the other side has a positive charge because the oxygen atom exerts a greater pull on the electrons than the hydrogen atoms.
The molecule is asymmetrical and highly polar.
Positive hydrogen of one molecule is attracted to negative oxygen of another molecule.
The two molecule are held together by hydrogen.
The special characteristics of water that are important for life on Earth are due to the strong hydrogen attraction that water has for each other.
The hydrogen atom of one molecule of water is attracted to the oxygen atom of another molecule.
Living systems depend on the properties of water.
Specific heat is the amount of heat a substance needs to absorb to increase by 1 gram.
Large bodies of water provide a stable temperature for the organisms that live in them because of their high specific heat.
The climate of the nearby land is moderate by them.
The most stable temperatures of any biome can be attributed to high specific heat.
Evaporating water requires a lot of heat to be absorbed, so sweating cools the body surface.
The Universal Soap is water.
All polar and ionic substances are dissolved by water.
This means that water attracts one another and results in biological phenomena.
Water moves up a tall tree from the roots to the leaves without the use of energy.
One molecule of water is lost from the leaf by transpiration, and another molecule is drawn in at the roots.
There is surface tension that allows insects to walk on water.
In a deep body of water, floating ice insulates the liquid water below it, allowing fish and other organisms to survive.
Water circulates throughout the lake in the spring when the ice becomes denser and sinks to the bottom of the lake.
Oxygen from the surface is returned to the depths, and nutrients released by the activities of bottom-dwellingbacteria during winter are carried to the upper layers of the lake.
The spring overturn is a part of the life cycle of a lake.
Anything with a pH of less than 7 is acid, and anything with a value greater than 7 is alkaline.
A neutral pH is 7.
The negative log is the hydrogen ion concentration in moles per liter.
The pH values are compared with the molarity.
A substance with a pH of 3 has a H + concentration of 1.0 x 10 -4 or less than 1 mole per liter of solution, while a substance with a pH of 4 has a H + concentration of 1.0 x 10 -4 or less than 1 mole per liter of solution.
A solution with a pH of 4 is 10 times more acidic than a solution with a pH of 3.
A solution with a pH of 6 is 1,000 times more acidic than a solution with a pH of 9.
The pH decreases as the H+ concentration increases.
The internal pH of living cells is close to 7.
A small change can be harmful.
Biological systems regulate their pH through the presence of buffers.
A buffer can be either absorbing excess hydrogen ion or donating hydrogen ion.
The bicarbonate ion is the most important buffer in human blood.
They have the same formula but different structures.
Isomers have different properties because of their structures.
There are three types of isomers.
Structural isomers have different arrangements of their atoms.
In spatial arrangement around double bonds, cis-trans isomers are not as flexible as single bonds are.
Enantiomers are mirror images of each other.
There are two versions of the mirror images.
Knowledge of enantiomers is important in the pharmaceutical industry because the two mirror images may not be equally effective.
L-dopa is a drug used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease.
D -dopa is useless in the treatment of the disease.
We don't understand why all the left-handed amino acids are in cells.
A change in structure causes a change in function.
All living organisms are made up of organic compounds.
There are many different carbon compounds because they can form bonds.
It can form long chains.
There are four classes of organic compounds.
The body uses fuel and building materials.
2 to 1 is the ratio of the number of hydrogen atoms to the number of oxygen atoms.
The formula is C n H 2 O.
When burned in a calorimeter, 1 gram of any carbohydrate will release 4 calories.
Food sources include rice, pasta, bread, cookies, and candy.
Monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides are the three classes of carbohydrates.
The chemical formula for monosaccharides is C 6 H 12 O 6.
There are three examples of isomers of each other.
The structural formula is shown.
The numbering begins to the right.
The chemical formula for disaccharides is C 12 H 22 O 11.
They consist of two monosaccharides joined together with the release of one molecule of water.
There are three condensation reactions of monosaccharides.
Adding water to a compound is called hydrolysis.
It is the opposite of condensation synthesis.
Polysaccharides are macromolecules.
They are formed as many monosaccharides join together by dehydration reactions.
The four important polysaccharides are shown in the 888-666-1846 888-666-1846 888-666-1846 888-666-1846 888-666-1846 888-666-1846 888-666-1846 888-666-1846 888-666-1846 888-666-1846 888-666-1846 888-666-1846 888-666-1846 888-666-1846 888-666-1846 888-666-1846 888-666-1846 888-666-1846 888-666-1846 888-666-1846 888-666-1846 888-666-1846 888-666-1846 888-666-1846 888-666-1846 888-666-1846 888-666-1846 888-666-1846 888-666-1846 888-666-1846 888-666-1846 888-666-1846 888-666-1846 888-666-1846 888-666-1846 888-666-1846 888-666-1846 888-666-1846 888-666-1846 888-666-1846 888-666-1846 888-666-1846 888-666-1846 888-666-1846 888-666-1846 888-666-1846 888-666-1846 888-666-1846 888-666-1846 888-666-1846
Fats, oils, waxes, and steroids are some of the organic compounds in the Lipids class.
They are grouped together because they are notsoluble in water.
Most of the lipids are made up of 1 glycerol and 3 fatty acids.
The cell is made oflipids with aphosphate attached.
The alcohol shown in is Glycerol.
A carboxyl group is at one end of a chain of hydrocarbons.
There are two types of fat acids, saturated and unsaturated.
Saturated fats come from animals, are solid at room temperature, and are linked to heart disease when eaten in large quantities.
Butter is an example of a saturated fat.
There are only single bonds between carbon atoms.
Unsaturated fat acids are derived from plants, are liquid at room temperature, and are considered to be healthy.
There is at least one double bond formed by the removal of hydrogen atoms.
They hold less hydrogen atoms than saturated fatty acids.
One exception is the group of tropical oils such as coconut and palm oil that are saturated, somewhat solid at room temperature, and are just as bad as fat from animals.
Steroids do not have the same structure as other lipids.
They have four fused carbon rings.
Estradiol and testosterone are examples of steroids.
They serve many functions.
When burned in a calorimeter, one gram of any lipid will release 9 calories per gram and produce twice the energy of 1 gram of carbohydrates or 1 gram of proteins.
A major component of the cell is the Phospholipids.
The cholesterol in animal cells is an important component.
Some steroids are hormones.
The modified lipids are phospholipids.
The third hydroxyl group of the glycerol is charged.
The head attracts water.
The phosphate is on the outside and the tails are on the inside.
The structural basis of all plasma membranes is thelipid bilayer.
The boundary is between the inside of the cell and the outside.
Fish, poultry, meat, and beans and peanuts are some of the sources of nutrition.
Four calories are released for every gram ofProtein burned in a calorimeter.
The elements S, P, C, O, H, and N are part of the polypeptides.
A carboxyl group, an amine group, and a variable are attached to a central asymmetric carbon atom.
The side chain or variable is called the R group.
The R groups are categorized by their chemical properties.
The structure and function of a protein is determined by the interactions among the R groups.
Cells can build thousands of different proteins with only 20 different amino acids.
A dipeptide is a molecule consisting of two amino acids connected by one peptide bond.
One molecule of water is released.
The shape and function of a particular protein is determined by how it is shaped.
There are four levels of the structure of a molecule.
They are primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structures.
The unique linear sequence of amino acids is referred to as the primary structure.
Major consequences can be caused by a change in the amino acid sequence.
There is a life-threatening condition called sickle cell anemia, which is caused by a substitution of Valine forglutamic acid in a molecule of hemoglobin.
There is a connection between the sequence of the subcomponents.
It is a good example.
In the 1940s and 1950s, Fred Sanger was the first to sequence a protein.
He received the prize for his work.
The hydrogen bonding within the polypeptide molecule results in the secondary structure of a protein.
It refers to how the polypeptide folds into two different shapes: an alpha helix or a beta-pleated sheet.
There are two types of proteins: alpha helix or alpha-pleated sheet.
Wool, claws, beaks, reptile scales, and collagen are some of the examples of fibrous proteins.
Human hair is made of alpha helixes, while silk and spider webs are made of alpha-pleated sheets.
A tertiary structure is a three-dimensional shape of aProtein that is superimposed on its secondary structure.
The structure of theProtein's specificity is determined by the tertiary structure.
Hemoglobin has four polypeptide chains that form a heme group.
Under normal cellular conditions, the primary structure of aProtein determines how it folds into its particular three-dimensional shape.
Physical and chemical conditions in the environment affect the structure of the molecule.
denaturation or denaturing is a phenomenon that occurs when adverse conditions alter the weak internal forces.
A change in structure can cause a change in function.
A basic idea of modern biology is that the shape of a molecule determines how it works.
Scientists don't know all the rules about how proteins fold.
There is a recent discovery that helps in folding other proteins.
There is a serious problem for a cell if a misfolded protein is present.
Learning more about folding is important.
Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and mad cow disease are all caused by prions in brain cells.
Three techniques are used to reveal a three-dimensional shape.
X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and a new field are listed.
Bioinformatics uses computers and mathematical modeling to integrate huge volume of data generated from the analysis of an apical sequence to predict the three-dimensional structure of the resulting molecule.
The shape of more than 20,000 proteins has been determined.
The two nucleic acids are ribonucleic acid and deoxyribonucleic acid.
They store all hereditary information.
The information in the sequence of nucleotides in the DNA is used to make the amino acid sequence of the proteins.
The repeating units called nucleotides are found in nucleic acids.
There is a nitrogen base, adenine, a ribose, and a 5-carbon sugar in the nucleotide.
The carbon atoms are numbered.
There are two strands that run in opposite directions.
One strand runs from 3' to 5' while the other runs from 3' to 5'.
There are also nucleic acids discussed.
Functional groups are components of organic molecules that are involved in chemical reactions.
These groups are attached to the carbon skeleton and replace hydrogen atoms.
The functional group attached to the carbon skeleton is the difference between testosterone and estradiol.
Each functional group behaves in a consistent fashion.
Big ideas were supported by this chapter.
Life depends on the properties of water.
Function is related to the biological concept.
There are different functions for the same chemical formula.
The sequence of the amino acids in aProtein causes theProtein to fold in a particular way and 888-609- 888-609- 888-609- 888-609- 888-609-
A cell's activities are determined by the particular sequence of nucleotides.
Clothes washing detergent must be able to remove grease and oil stains from clothing while also dissolving and washing away in the rinse water.
A ribosome is formed when a particular sequence of amino acids are strung together.
There is a diagram of an experiment.
Newly formed polypeptide is released from the ribosome in both trials.
The newly formed polypeptide is in contact with a heat shock protein.
The newly formed polypeptide is not exposed to HSP in Experiment B.
The trials are the same except for the presence or absence of HSP.
The building blocks of polypeptides are depicted in this sketch.
Some atoms are removed when they are combined into a dipeptide.
One drop of water and ethyl alcohol is placed on a slide.
You can see the sketch.
In 1957 a pharmaceutical company in West Germany introduced a new drug to the market as a sleeping drug for pregnant women.
Thalidomide was very effective.
Millions of women were prescribed it by doctors in 46 countries.
Thousands of babies were born with missing or abnormal arms, hands, legs, or feet to mothers who took the drug while pregnant.
The product was removed from the market even though the pharmaceutical company proved that the drug contained pure thalidomide.
One version worked as expected, while the other caused birth defects.
A given element has the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons.
There are three isotopes of the carbon element.
Human blood has a normal pH of 7.4.
C 6 H 12 O 6 is the formula for glucose.
Specific heat is the amount of heat that must be absorbed or lost for 1 g of that substance to change its temperature.
Specific heat is a measure of how well a substance resists changing its temperature when it absorbs or releases heat.
The heat of water is very high.
The local climate is affected by a large body of water.
A molecule that is balanced and distributed equally is nonpolar.
A balanced arrangement of the 4Hs around the lone carbon makes the molecule non polar.
The bonds between oxygen atoms in O 2 are nonpolar, and the overall molecule is also balanced and nonpolar.
The CO 2 molecule has polar bonds between the carbon and oxygen atoms, but the arrangement of C and Os is balanced.
The molecule is balanced.
Water is a strongly polar molecule because oxygen attracts the hydrogen atoms and one side of the molecule is partially positive.
One end of the laundry detergent molecule is non-polar and will break the stain.
The polar end of the molecule will be in the rinse water.
The folding of the heat shock protein is what enabled it to function.
The person is acting like a chaperone.
In both cases, the ribosome produces something.
There is nothing wrong with the ribosome.
In this experiment, HSP does not come in contact with the DNA.
No heat is applied in this experiment.
One strand runs from 3' to 5' and the other runs from 3' to 3'.
The bases are identical in the two strands, so eliminate choice B. U is only found in RNA, not DNA, so eliminate choice C. The two strands are 5' to 3' long.
The molecule of water is attracted to each other by hydrogen bonding and also because the water molecule is polar and the negative side of one water molecule attracts the positive side of another water molecule.
Water has strong cohesion tension because of these strong intermolecular attractions.
Molecules of alcohol have different attractions for each other.
Choice D is wrong because attraction is not within them.
The terrible outcome did not take a long time to surface.
There were no contaminants in the drug according to the stem of the question.
Out of millions of babies, a small percentage were born with birth defects.
C is probably not reasonable.
Some of the carbon's radioactive elements are C-14).
There is only one number of neutrons.
The fact that it doesn't change is an example of being in balance.
A pH of 7.4 is either basic or alkaline.
That means it has more OH than H.
Choice B is not correct because it is an empirical formula.
The empirical formula for any monosaccharide is choice B.
It is produced and used up all the time.
Swelling and fatiguing acids make up lipids.
Glucagon is a hormone that breaks down glycogen into sugar.