A brief return to competitiveness in the second half of the 1980s masked the steady long-term transforma agricultural products, manufactured goods, and invest tion of the economy that had begun in the 1970s.
American manufacturers lost market share to global competitors because of cheaper and better-designed products.
The US economy grew at an average rate of 2 to 3 percent per year for much of the negative balance of international payments.
In the late 1980s and 1990s, it imported more goods and capital than it exported.
The direction of growth country became a debtor and its beneficiaries.
Between the second half of the 1980s and the second half of the 1990s, American productivity was popularized by the free marketeers.
The mea has its capitalist heroes, but Americans in the 1980s ger rate of 1 percent a year -- a far cry from the post- World War II rate of 3 percent.
When the president christened self-made wanted to cut costs, the wages of most employees were "the heroes for the eighties."
Because of foreign competition, people like Lee Iacocca were in mind.
Yoichi Funabashi is a prize-winning journalist who specializes in the U.S.-Japan economic relation.
After World War II, Japan struggled to rebuild.
The end of the Cold War has changed the personality of Shigeru Yoshida, prime minister of Japan during the critical years of 1948 to 1952, when he called on the country to be shaped Japanese-U.S. relations.
Both countries face a loser.
The Japanese have lost the war, but the need to redefine their relationship to suit them must not be lost on them.
The new context requires Japan to cooperate.
The United States should pull itself out of misery.
Before they can build a strong bilateral relationship, the Japanese must stop being obsessed with being Number One and cooperate with the Al Americans.
They had been taught for a long time that this psychological adjustment is necessary for both people.
Projecting the core of their souls.
This is a good loser.
Japan is into a democratic country with a relatively moderate dis overly conscious of itself as a late-starter, having entered parity between rich and poor and a stable, smoothly modern international society only in the mid-nineteenth functioning political system.
It may be more difficult for the United States, which before had a multiethnic, contract-based society and a dominated the free world during the Cold War, to make traditional society join together to form a powerful team.
Japan and the partnership with Japan are equal.
Growing Japanese investment in the United States is one of the potential sources of bilateral friction.
The debate over the trade imbalance and Japanese investment in the United States is one of the sources of bilateral friction.
Since immigrants and trained as an engineer, Iacocca rose government, pushing the development of new cars through the ranks to become president of the Ford and selling them on TV, U.S. relations now face their gravest challenge.
Iacocca's restora secured a huge loan from the U.S.
Between the 1950s and the 1970s captured Americans' imagination.
Each Boesky, a white-collar criminal convicted of insider generation of computers, grew faster and 888-282-0465 888-282-0465 888-282-0465 888-282-0465 888-282-0465 888-282-0465 888-282-0465.
As much processing power as a Boesky told a business school graduating class, was provided by this page.
The fictional film character Gordon Gekko was inspired by the day of the personal.
A new generation of Wall Street executives, of which Computers in 1976 and within a year were producing Boesky was one example, pioneered the leveraged buy small, individual computers that could be easily used out.
A financier is used heavily by a single person.
Companies scrambled to get into the market after Apple's success.
The restructured company was sold by IBM at a higher price.
Donald Trump is a real estate developer who key.
They founded the Microsoft Corporation to get publicity.
The software industry was dominated by the Trump Towers in New York.
There is a display of puters in the United States and a majority of those self-promotion reinforced by the media.
He was called around the world.
Gates and Allen became billionaires, "The Donald," a nickname used by Trump's first wife, and Microsoft exploded into a huge company with TV reporters and magazines commenting relentlessly on 57,000 employees and annual revenues of $38 billion.
Millions of people's homes were grabbed by Trump.
In an age that celebrated free-market capitalism, a handful of quieter, less flashy entrepreneurs was busy ernment research and government funding had played a role in changing the face of the American economy.
Four important technology since television are Bill Gates, Paul Allen, Steve Jobs, and Steve Wozniak.
They made it acces sible to individual consumers by taking a technology that had been used exclusively for large-scale enterprises.
Ronald Reagan was determined to confront the Soviet Union diplomatically and politically.
Backed during World War II.
Cold War military research by Republican and Democratic hard-liners resulted in the construction of large main Reagan, which unleashed some of the harshest Cold War rhet frame computers.
Computers are a new phenomenon.
The first computers were developed using vacuum tubes and transistors.
The first micro Personal Computing: processor was introduced in the 1970s.
Prior to the decade of the 1980s, only the federal government and large corporations and institutions used computers, which were large and expensive to purchase.
Revolution was within the price range of ordinary families.
The computers we know are from that decade.
The Internet became widely available to the public for the first time in the mid 1990s.
You're going to increase at a rate of roughly two per year.
I believe that a large circuit can be built on a single wafer.
Ardley was interested in the future of computers.
You also want to know the name of the man.
The doors to the Pod bay are open.
You would say "I'm sorry, Dave" when the last comet appeared.
You would have gone to the library to get the I do if you didn't have these HAL.
The mission is too important for me to allow a hobby, but you get virtually all the information you need to jeopardize it.
I don't know what you're talking about.
The percentage of Americans using the internet.
Reese said there was a war.
Everything is gone.
There were people who were alive.
Sarah doesn't understand.
Hooked into everything.
All people were seen as a threat, not just the ones on the other side.
In a second, we decided our fate.
It's easy to answer: You 1985, 52.
Computers are tools.
It helps us do our work better if we have anxiety about the extraordi Tools.
Since the late 1950s, the power of computers in education has been a regular feature, as have puters.
The cultural reactions to computers early in their judgment are not explained in the scenes from these two films.
Steve Jobs looked at computers in source to link them to a nationwide communications network.
Drawing on the history of personal computers discussed in this chapter, as well as on the documents above, write an essay in which you assess the origin of the personal computer.
The Industrial Revolution of the second half of the 19th century and the "computer revolution" of the 20th century can be compared.
Reagan decided that the American advantage in sea and air-based nuclear systems would be best achieved by cooperating with the Soviets.
The president supported the communist leader.
The downfall of the Soviet Union to roll back Soviet influence in the developing world in 1991 led to a new set of foreign challenges.
Reagan supported U.S.-Soviet Relations in a New Era sive, right-wing regimes.
In the Central American when Reagan took the presidency in 1981 there was a lot of this.
If elected, Nixon regarded himself as a "realist" for ships and oligarchies.
Left-wing movements sought support from national interest without regard to ideology.
The pro policy of detente with the Soviet Union and China was supported by thousands of opponents.
The government was executed or kidnapped after President Carter endorsed it.
Reagan encouraged a coup against tensions during detente and continued to push for a relaxing of the Cold War.
This worked for a time, but the Sandinista government in Afghanistan was overthrown by the Soviets, empowering hard-liners in the U.S.
Carter was forced to take a tougher line after Congress and the U.S. backed government of El Salvadoran murdered the mem embargo.
Reagan had a relationship with bers of the opposition.
Reagan blocked 1981 because it was a decade of detente that had produced a notice Soviet influence, but the damage done to the United States' international reputation and local economies was mitigated by a year of tense standoffs with the Soviets.
Conservatives did not administration in a scandal.
They didn't believe in the second term.
For a long time, Reagan opposed containment policy.
Reagan wanted its help in 1985.
The administration freed two dozen American hostages held by Hezbollah, a pro-Iranian Shiite group in Lebanon.
The administration sold arms to Iran without public or rearming America.
Congressional knowledge of Reagan's military budgets.
This secret arms deal was diplomatically and politically controversial, the military bases were dramatically expanded, and the nation's use of the resulting profits was explicitly nuclear.
Reagan's proposal for a Strategic Defense fighters was one of the most controversial aspects of the 1980's.
Scientists doubted its legislature.
Congress banned the CIA in 1984 and it was never built.
The Strategic Arms Reduction Talks were proposed by the Reagan administration to support theContras.
The Iran-Contra congressional hearings, which lasted more than a month and were broadcast on live television, helped uncover a secret and illegal White House scheme to provide arms to the NicaraguanContras.
Though Oliver North was convicted of three felonies, he never served prison time and emerged from the hearings as a populist hero for American conservatives.
With the tacit or explicit consent of amounts of money, the military was destroyed and high-ranking administration officials were undermined.
The president continued to criticize the institutions and the communist regime in international affairs.
Gorbachev met with Reagan Cold War to reduce tensions that would bring a close to the United States.
Intermediate-range nuclear missiles are based in Europe.
Line advisors with policymakers favored a renewal done inefficiently.
There were no incentives of a mar of detente.
The standard of living in the Soviet bloc was low.
Castro ousts the dictator.
Military coup ousts Aristide.
Cuba was blockaded by the U.S. in 1962.
Sandinistas are in power.
Sandinistas are fighting civil war.
The United States has a special interest in Latin America.
During the Cold War, U.S. foreign policy in Latin America focused on containing instability and the appeal of communism in a region plagued by poverty and military dictatorships.
Providing foreign aid was one approach to addressing social and economic needs, but the United States frequently interfered with military forces to remove unfriendly or socialist governments.
Some of the Reagan administration's interventions were contrary to U.S. law.
Germans knocked down the hated wall reforms as the Soviet leader watched.
Europe demanded the removal of their Communist gov making.
Boris Yeltsin is the pro-Soviet regime.
The popular uprisings to oust Gorbachev were quashed by the president of the Russian Republic.
Hungary and East Germany were broken by this failure.
They did not try to undermine the Communist Party.
The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics Revolutions created a new political order after a series of peaceful uprisings.
Ronald Reagan and Mikhail Gorbachev changed the political outlook of their nations.
Gorbachev challenged the rigidity of the Communist Party and state socialism in the Soviet Union as Reagan undermined socialwelfare liberalism in the United States.
Although they were ideological adversaries, the two leaders were able to agree on a series of arms reduction measures.
Weak witch-hunts and a constant fear of nuclear annihila nesses of the Communist economy caused the collapse radiation from atomic weapons tests.
Most Americans had no problem with the United States playing an important, though proclaiming victory, and advocates of free-market cap secondary, role.
The collapse of communism in the cold war was concluded by George Kennan, the architect of Eastern Europe.
Cold War's cost was enormous and both sides benefit from being right all along, they argued.
The United States fought a bitter economic battle against the communists for more than forty years, and the struggle at home and abroad had an enormous impact on American society.
Ronald Reagan's role in facilitating the end of the Cold ons and trillions more on conventional arms was one of his most important achievements.
Despite creating a massive military-industrial complex, he could not reduce its size or scope because of the high physical and psychological costs.
Conservatives did not see George H. W. Bush as one of their own.
He had an inside knowledge of government and a long list of powerful allies.
Bush's route to the White House was indicative of the post-Reagan alignments in American politics.
During the primaries, he faced a challenge from Pat Robertson, the archconservative televangelist whose influence and profile had grown during Reagan's two terms.
After securing the presidential nomination, which he won largely because of his fierce loyalty to Reagan, Bush felt compelled to select as his vice-presidential running mate an unknown and inexperienced Indiana senator, Dan Quayle.
The traditional nuclear family and Christian morality are upheld by the vote.
The Religious Right had become a major force in Republican politics after Robertson's challenge and Quayle's selection.
Jesse Jackson was the first African American to challenge for a major-party nomination on the Democratic side.
As the Communist government of East Germany collapsed, West Berliners showed their contempt for the wall dividing the Democratic nominee.
Dukakis, a liberal from Berlin, defaced it with graffiti.
In November 1989, the Northeast was unable to win back the constituen East and West Berliners, who had destroyed huge sections of the wall in the 1970s.
Bush won with 53 percent of the vote, and enormous military spending out, but a larger margin of victory weighed on the cuts to other programs.
In 1980, Reagan was determined not to.
Reagan did not push a con pattern in presidential politics that would last through the policies of the Religious Right.
Americans would refight the battles of the 1960s with restrictions on abortions and a constitutional amendment that would amend liberals on one side and conservatives on the other.
States as the world's only military superpower and regulatory state of the New Deal-Great Society raised the prospect of what President Bush called a era.
The new world order was dominated by the United States and Reagan presidency.
The diplomats presumed that the U.S. interests should prevail.
His bold and fiscally array of regional, religious, and ethnic conflicts that aggressive tax cuts won many followers, as did his antigovernment rheto in this new environment.
Social-welfare liberalism defies easy solutions.
The oil defensive in the Middle East, led by Reagan, was the most complex since 1933 and conservatives had changed rich lands stretching from Iran to Algeria.
The political conversation is in the middle.
The political landscape of Central Europe and Central Asia was altered by the collapse of Soviet communism.
The Warsaw Pact was the answer to NATO.
The nations created by the Versailles treaty of 1919 were divided into smaller, ethnically defined nations.
The Soviet republics bordering Russia, from the west to the east, became independent states, while remaining bound with Russia in the Commonwealth of Independent States.
American interest in a reliable military operation intended to destroy the Palestine supply of oil led to the United States joining the PLO.
The war in the Persian Gulf in the militant group Hezbollah angered the U.S. in the early 1990s.
In September 1980, Israel killed 241 American marines and Reagan withdrew the forces from Iran.
Three years later, the Palestinians came under attack from Iraq, the Gaza Strip and the West Bank of the secular state headed by Saddam Hussein.
The intifada, a civilian uprising against attrition, claimed a million casualties during the war of 1967.
Reagan supported Israeli authority.
In order to maintain supplies of Iraqi oil, American diplomats stepped up their efforts to persuade the PLO and Arab aid, in order to con Iran and preserve a balance of power in the region.
An armistice ended the state in 1988.
The war was unable to solve the region's most intractable ritory that sparked the conflict.
10 percent of the American troops were women in the Persian Gulf War.
In the last decades of the twentieth century, more and more women chose military careers and were assigned to combat zones.
In August 1990 Hussein left power.
The UN Resolution to war expanded Iraq's boundaries and oil supply.
Hussein sent in troops and quickly systems, destroyed all biological and chemical arms, conquered Kuwait, Iraq's small, oil, if it allowed unfettered inspection of its weapons by the United States.
The military victory, the low incidence of world's known oil reserves, and the quick withdrawal of the United States were all positives.
To preserve Western access to oil, duced a happy reaction at home.
"We've President George H. W. Bush sponsored a series of reforms that kicked the Vietnam syndrome once and for all," Bush said.
Why did the UN become the pretext for Bush's son?
The end of the Cold War meant a new American presence in the Middle East.
The United States and the Soviet Union tried to divide the world into two competing economies with a vote of 252 to 182, half a century ago.
Bush decided Muslim and Arab regionalism to avoid a lengthy struggle and retain French and cultural globalization.
There was more post-Cold against occupying Iraq and removing Saddam Hussein War shifts coming into view.
The emergence of the European Union as a movement from the ground up was one of the highlights.
Defending free-market economics and global political force.
Reagan's economic growth in China became a champion of the New Right because of the lower taxes and fewer government regulations.
His record took off in the early 1990s.
Reagan's initial tax cuts were followed by tax hikes in Europe, the United States, and East Asia.
He was dismayed by the conflict in the Middle East.
Reagan was involved in the end of the Cold War.
The rise of the New Right in the U.S. was examined in this chapter.
Reagan agreed to meet politics and the end of the Cold War.
The stage was set for a new era in American life when each develop with Gorbachev.
Our own day is more important than that.
The New Reagan's actions were inefficiencies and con Right, which had been building since the collapse of the Soviet economy.
The liberalism of the Great Society was criticized in the 1960's because of the war in Afghanistan, the disas and the permissiveness.
The shift to institute the first significant reforms in Soviet society was necessitated by their loyalty to Barry Goldwater and Ronald Reagan.
Reagan was criticized for building a conservative of the Soviet Union, which collapsed in 1991.
Explain the significance of each term.
Answer these questions to recognize the larger developments within and across the chapters.
The images of two major periods of liberal legislative accom Reagan are examined in this chapter.
The Reagan era in the 1980s.
The events discussed in this chapter can be found here.
The National Security Archive explores the rise of War incidents.
You should ask yourself why this chapter begins and ends with these dates.