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28 -- Part 2: World War and Revolution
Balkan nationalism was asserting itself again by 1903.
Serbia became hostile to both Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire.
Slavic Russia was looked to for support by the Slavic Serbs.
Austria annexed Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1908 in order to block Serbian expansion.
Without support from Russia, Ser bia could not do anything.
The Ottoman presence in Europe was destroyed by the First and Second Balkan Wars in 1912 and 1913.
Austria-Hungary's multinational leaders were dismayed by this event.
The former hoped that Austria would not be broken apart.
The Ottoman Empire lost a lot of territory after the Congress of Berlin in 1878.
Ethnic boundaries that did not follow political boundaries threatened Austria-Hungary by 1914.
Archduke Francis Ferdinand, heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, and his wife were assassinated by Serbian revolutionaries on June 28, 1914, during a state visit to the Bosnian capital of Sarajevo.
Austria-Hungary's leaders held Serbia responsible and presented Serbia with an ultimatum on July 23, ending demands that amounted to Austrian control of the Serbian state.
Austria declared war on Serbia on July 28.
Germany's uncondi tional support was important in Austria-Hungary's fateful decision.
They hoped that Great Britain would remain neutral while Russia and France went to war.
Policy began to be dictated by military plans and timetables.
Nicholas II ordered a partial deployment against Austria-Hungary on July 28.
Rus sia had assumed a war with both Austria and Germany, and it was not possible to mobilize against the other.
On July 29 Russia declared a general war.
A two-front war was prepared by the Ger man general staff.
The Schlieffen plan called for France to be knocked out with a lightning attack through neutral Belgium.
German armies invaded Belgium.
Great Britain declared war on Germany.
Everyone thought the war would be over in August 1914.
The British army corps landed near the Franco-Belgian border after the Belgian army defended its homeland.
German soldiers advanced along an enormous front by the end of August instead of quickly capping Paris.
The French attacked the Ger man line at the Battle of the Marne on September 6.
Everything was thrown into the attack by France.
The Germans fell back.
France had been saved.
There are rows of trenches, mines, and barbed wire.
A line of parallel trenches stretched from the Belgian coast to the Swiss frontier.
The slaughter on the western front began in earnest in November 1914.
Ceaseless shelling is said to have softened the enemy in a given area.
Young soldiers went over the top of the trenches to attack the enemy's line.
Three miles of trenches, mines, and barbed of blood-soaked earth were never gained by the French and British during the war.
The British and French gained an insignificant 125 square miles at the cost of 600,000 dead gains in territory during the Battle of the Somme in 1916.
The year 1917 was just as bad.
Russia moved into eastern Germany but suffered terrible losses against the Germans at the Battles of Tannenberg and the Masurian Lakes in August and September 1914.
The war on the western front was concentrated in Belgium and northern France, while the war in the east encompassed an enormous territory.
The Russians retreated deep into their own territory in the 1915 eastern campaign after Austrians reversed the Russian advances of 1914.
The neutral countries entered the war because of the changing tides of victory and hopes of territorial gains.
Italy, a member of the Triple Alliance since 1882, declared its neutrality in 1914 because Austria had launched a war of aggression.
In May 1915 Italy joined the Tripleente of Great Britain, France, and Russia in exchange for promises of Austrian territory.
The Ottoman Empire joined with Austria and Ger many in October 1914.
The Ottoman Empire led the way in order to settle old scores with Serbia.
The Ottoman Turks joined forces with Germany and Austria-Hungary.
The Germans helped reform the Ottoman armies before the war and built important railroads, like the one to Bagh dad, which the Young Turks were pro-German for.
The Turks were able to get rid of the limitations on Ottoman sovereignty that the Europeans imposed in the 19th century because of their iance with Germany.
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