The actions of rulers influenced the spread of Greek culture.
The Seleucid kings built a society.
Their military settlements and cities can be found along the banks of the rivers of the western Asia Minor.
The Seleucids introduced a large and vigorous Greek population to these lands despite not having a plan for enizing the native population.
In the eastern part of the Seleucid kingdom, several Greek leaders defeated the Seleucids and established the independent kingdoms of Parthia and Bactria.
The Bactrian city of Ay Khanoum on the Oxus River, on the modern border of Russia and Afghanistan, is an example of a city where cultures met.
Have no regrets in death.
The city had temples to local dei ties and artwork that blended Greek and lo cal styles.
Some Greeks in Bactria converted to Buddhism.
The metal plate was made in the city of Ay.
The Ptolemies promoted Greek culture over that of the local b.c.e.
in Alexandria in the second century.
The largest library in the ancient world was established by the Ptolemaic kings and was called the Cybele Library.
They looked at the newest discoveries in sci above.
Alexandria was home to the largest Jewish community in the ancient into Greece from Turkey, and here Jewish scholars translated the Hebrew Bible into Greek for the first time.
The period did not see a dramatic change in the way most people lived and worked, they continued to raise crops and animals using traditional methods, paying rents to their landlords and taxes to the state.
The spread of Greeks eastward created new markets for trade.
The Romans were able to trade products and ideas more easily because of the economic unity of the world.
The royal treasury was found to be full when Alexander conquered the Persian Empire.
The building of roads, the development of harbors, and the founding of new cities were funded by the victors' wealth.
Merchants eagerly took advantage of the unforeseen oppor tunities when the markets were opened in these cities.
In the Hellenistic era, overland trade became more prominent as merchants sent their goods by water.
caravans were mostly in the hands of easterners who conducted overland trade with India.
Greek merchants were involved in the trade of goods to the monarchies.
The harbors of Palestine, Phoenicia, and Syria were gateways to the east.
Goods went to Greece, Italy, and Spain from these ports.
The coining of money gave merchants a standard way to value goods as a convenient method of payment.
The increased volume of trade made luxury goods more accessible to more people.
overland traders brought easily transportable luxu ries such as gold, silver, and precious stones to market.
The Silk Road became the most valuable overland commodity after they extended their networks into China.
Metal weapons, cloth, wine, and olive oil were sent east by the people of the eastern Mediterranean.
Commercial dealings in essential commodities like wood, grain, and industrial products were more important than trade in exotic goods.
The monarchies raised enough grain to meet their own needs as well as a surplus for export.
The trade in grain was important for the cities of the Aegean because they couldn't grow enough in their mountainous terrain.
Fortunately for them, there were plentiful wheat supplies in southern Russia and Egypt.
The Greek cities exported olive oil, wine, honey, dried fruit, nuts, and vegetables.
The Greeks supplied a lot of fish, which was salted, dried, or preserved.
Poor people with an essential part of their diet were provided fish.
Slave traders found a ready market throughout the Hellenistic world.
The Ptolemies discouraged both the trade and slavery for economic reasons.
Slaves would only have competed with cheap labor provided by free people in their system.
Slave laborers could be found in cities and temples, in factories and fields, and in the homes of wealthier people.
Demand for goods increased during the Hellenistic period, but few new techniques of production appeared.
The Hellenistic world used manual labor to turn out agricultural produce, raw materials, and the few manufactured goods.
Religion, philosophy, and science were influenced by the mixing of peoples in the Hellenistic era.
The rituals and ceremonies of earlier Greek cities were promoted by the Hellenistic kings.