ChAPTER 32 -- Part 3: Russia and Japan: Industrialization
A new organization of essential services improved the officer corps.
Many peasants served in the military and learned new skills.
State-sponsored basic education was provided, although schools spread differently.
In Russian society, literacy increased rapidly from the reform era onward.
There are similarities between the mass reading culture in the West and a new market for popular reading matter.
Russian potboiler novels have a pronounced taste for excitement and exotic adventure.
Russian "bad guys" were either returned to social loyalty or condemned, a sign of the limits to individualism.
The climate of change has led to new positions being gained by women.
As in the West, a minority of women from the upper classes began to enter professions such as medicine, and some won access to higher education.
Sexual habits began to change in the West a century earlier.
Sex activity before marriage increased, and nonagricultural jobs were available, loosened fathers' control over their children's behavior.
The move toward industrialization was part of the larger process of change.
Russia lacked a middle class and capital to support state support.
The tradition of economic activity that went back to Peter the Great required state enterprises to make up part of the gap.
Russia began to build a railroad network in the 1870s.
Expansion of Russia's iron and coal sectors was stimulated by the railroad boom.
The export of grain to the West, which earned foreign currency needed to pay for advanced Western goods, brought Russia into a more active machinery.
Siberia was opened up to new development by the railroads.
The workers of enforcement in bastmatting factories were minimal.
All ages sleep together on mats and pieces of bast which are often damp.
The sick workers who dutifully reported on their work are allowed to sleep on the single stove.
Work at the mill conditions were ignored.
The owing pas never stops.
There are two twelve-hour shifts a day in Moscow.
There are no special quarters for breakfast or dinner in most factories.
This applies to workers in paper, wool, and silk.
Most of the flax-spinning mills where linen is produced have skilled hand craftsmen who make brocade weavers.
Only in a few weaving factories are combing machines covered and there are special sleeping quarters for other workers.
The scutching apparatus is where the velveteen cutters work, and they almost always sleep on the tables.
This habit is not good for you.
The sizes of fines are not fixed in advance.
A brief description of a few of the fines and the determination of the worker's wages was in factory No.
172 is an example of extreme variety.
New fines were posted to factories in Podolsk on October 24, 1877.
There is a ten-ruble forfeiture for leaving the factory before the contract ends, which can be set at the discretion of the office.
There was a failure to maintain silence.
This covers more than just voluntary breeches of con, it also covers minor fines prescribed for certain offenses, such as tract on the worker's part.
On August 4, 1883, a huge fine of five rubles was set for anyone who had to leave the factory.
People who have had to pay this fine three times are known to have cases for singing in the factory courtyard after 9:30.
On June 3, 1881, a fine was to be levied for so many causes that falling under a severe from workers who took tea and sugar, bread, or any kind of fine is a constant possibility for each worker.
The fine was to be one ruble on May 14, 1880.
Walls in the dyeing or weaving buildings would be left behind if anyone wrote with pencil, chalk, or anything else after a second offense.
The workers are still treated as serfs.
How did working conditions and management attitudes help the workers?
Russia's railroad network had almost quintupled since 1860, and by the turn of the century, modern factories were beginning to spring up in Moscow, St. Petersburg, and several Polish cities.
The skilled artisanry in the cities was expanded by printing factories and metalworking shops, while metallurgy and textile plants recruited a newer semi skilled industrial labor force from the troubled countryside.
The inflow of foreign capital is.
Half of the Russian industry was foreign owned and most of it was foreign operated.