The Empire and the Persians have different ways of maintaining their empires in Southwest Asia.
The main irrigation works opened up new agricultural frontiers.
What are the similarities and differences between earlier and now?
The replacements were not descendants.
First Empires and Common Cultures in Afro-Eurasia, 1250-325 bce Assyria, Persia, Vedic parts of South Asia, and Zhou China were all gone.
New imperial ideologies and religious beliefs were simpler and more violent in smaller communities.
The cities and hinterlands came together under a single madic population that had lived at the edge of a settled ruler.
Populations grew and farming yields increased.
The expansion of territorial power by means of conquest led to the communities.
Many of these nomadic peoples who had enjoyed integration of larger states, some of which became rapid population growth now found themselves unable to sup the first empires.
On the fringes of formerly great empires, port such large numbers, causing them to leave their homes in microsocieties, often in close contact with these states.
Significant contributions to human development were made by the renewed migra.
The cities of Greece and Crete began to challenge the power of the centers and territorial kingdoms of mainland Greece, Crete, and the Persian Empire.
The collapse of many of these once-powerful states was caused by Anatolia, Mesopotamia, and Egypt.
The new, bigger states were lured by the fertile lands to the south.
Climate change driven migrants mingled with settled people.
Ambitious leaders used technological innovations to create new states that went on to conquer other kingdoms after they had been devastated by a devastating drought.
The empire came about because of advances in the use of pack camels.
Southwest Asia had different degrees of centralized and militarized tralization, as well as different types of cen empires, and here the mon languages, unifying political systems, trade, and shared role of changing technology was significant.
The camel became the main overland agent of change, helping to open up trade routes across the Syrian and Arabian Deserts.
The societies of the Sahara Desert are all in Afro-Eurasia.
The Bactrian camel was domesticated by other peoples in central Asia.
They are better suited to the dry and cold weather in Iran and central Asia.
Farmers didn't have to rely on this route.
They could break the sod and turn it over to the subsoils.
Since 1600 bce, the effects of new shipbuilding technologies have made a significant difference beyond the traditional floodplains of riverbank settings.
The technological basis for support for rivers and lakes and along shorelines was provided by boats that were once designed for limited transport developments.
Expansion of the first empires depended on military might, to venture out across large bodies of open water, such as the and control of expanded territories required new administrative Mediterranean Sea.
He has control over the countryside because he is more abundant than the tin and copper.
Slave labor was used to make bronze, iron is harder to get from the ground, and to break resisters' unity, to provide useful shapes.
Adding carbon to the iron made it easier for them to communicate and move troops.
The subject made an early form of steel.
When the technology to smelt and peoples were required to send tribute in the form of grains, ani hardened iron advanced, iron tools and weapons replaced those mals, raw materials, and people in addition to precious goods made of bronze.
Gold and lapis lazuli were used to build imperial through that leaped across territorial and cultural borders.
Iron promoted a revolutionary shift in agricultural tech innovations, such as well-equipped armies, deportation, road systems and niques.
Iron edges that they could easily shape and resharpen became common as innovators learned to tip their plowshares with forged for transit and communication.
The social and political status quo in Afro-Eurasia was shattered by nomadic incursions.
Continuous hand-to-hand combat has always been a part of improved weapons.
The men wore protective leather and wore capes and helmets as they carried large destruction down on the opposing societies.
Although bronze was the most import, the military units created mass-formation fighting of infantry that ant metal for weapons, the introduction of uniform training, uniform iron toward the end of the second millen ies became crucial vehicles armaments, and state provision.
Horse-drawn cities had to be conquered by force in order to acquire land, single states and broadcasting early second millennium bce.
The influence of these states well chariots was added to the force, giving tering rams, first documented in Egypt, beyond the territories that they con mobility and the potential of surprise to an were added to mobile siege machines.
The field of large infantry force.
In the Old Kingdom, scaling ladders were used as pack animals and in thrown against the fortification for the fourth millennium bce, primarily by Arab tribesmen.
The local scripted into the Neo-Assyrian army was shown in Egypt.
In China, the same elements of infantry, populations were drafted into a common elephants, chariots and archers were at the core of the army.
The army was combined from the beginning as early as the Shang state.
Their original goal was to capture in the third millennium bce, but they used highly effective fighting force.
Weapons are used to protect against their neighbors.
The Zhou used bows and arrows, spears, and slings to defeat the Shang.
The invention of standing armies equipped with new and armies and wielded by infantries in around 475 bce of the crossbow made the tal advance far more homeland than coerced agricultural and urban laborers.
The Neo-Assyrians and Persians created markedly different institutions and values.
The third empire was the Neo-Assyrian state.
The Middle Assyrian Kingdoms were different from the larger empires because they were preceded by the Old that had preceded them.
The people of the Neo-Assyrian elites had a tradition of ruling others with an iron fist and making them regard those they conquered as inferiors.
nomadic peoples, roaming the Iranian personal killing machine, and used to cave in the sides of enemy ships were often brought back to the Persians.
These ships were costly to build, to heavy projectiles and fiery mass onto man, to provision, and to command.
From the beginning, the tech with the maintenance, training, and arm niques and technologies of war were rap ing large land forces, only relatively idly shared across cultural boundaries as wealthy states and governments could afford to mount this kind of power.
The ability armies, innovations in weaponry, and the appearance of the first number of elements that went into a battleships changed the nature fighting force.
The Persians learned from the Greeks how numbers and world's first empires emerged.
The Phoenician Early Sumerian Infantry built most of the ships in the empire.
The rowers were Briant, Pierre.
The two empires were the same in one respect.
The rise of empires begins in Southwest Asia with the engaged in warfare not entirely for itself, but also to create huge Neo-Assyrian Empire, successor to the Old and Middle Assyr and highly profitable trading networks.
The roads were used for long-distance trade.
Even if they did not have a military state par excellence, they still relied on the state for their control over distant territories and all state offices were used for military purposes.
300 Kilometers were beheaded.
The communities were conquered by the BCE.
The challenge of promoting order and stability is first proof.
The Assyrian peoples had several advantages.
Their Asia and parts of North Africa are first.
The Assyrians lived on the upper reaches of the river.
The Neo-Assyrian state had become strong enough to build siege towers and to cap their battering rams by the ninth.
It was not possible for the city walls to expand to the west, as it dominated the lands and stood against them for a long time.
The Neo-Assyrian armies were massive and controlled trade all the way to the Mediterranean.
Assyrian expansion was futile and contributed to its failure.
Forced deportations led to the relocation of the Neo-Assyrian rulers and their lands were divided into two parts.
The state grew even more ambitious.
The Assyrians called it the "Land of when a military leader took over the throne".
The lands between the Zagros Mountains and Pileser III were included in Tiglath Ashur.
The inhabitants of these inte had to supply food for the temple phase of imperial expansion and consolidation because the king's appointees had centralized power in royal hands.
He took away the god's residence, the nobles' rights to own and inherit land, the city of Ashur, and officials to carry out the state's business.
The Land under the Yoke of Ashur was controlled by officials from the center of the empire.
He lay outside of Assyria proper.
Its inhabitants were aggressive and expansionary.
The conquered peoples' hatred of the Assyrians was intensified by the lack of agricultural goods and labor.
The Land of Ashur proper was one of the four defining features of the Neo-Assyrian Empire.
While this eliminated the oppres unique imperial structure, (2) deportation and the forced labor need for the inhabitants of these lands to pay tribute, (3) a belief that empires worked, at least empire continued to harshly administer its programs of forced Assyrianization.
Assyrians went to war on summer campaigns in the early years of the empire.
The army grew to several hundred thousand men when campaigning became year-round.
Men from the conquered peoples were included in these forces.
The Assyrians assigned different ethnic groups to different military functions, including the Phoenicians who provided ships and sailors for battle in the Mediterranean, the Iranians who served as the king's bodyguards, and the charioteers from Israel who subdued western provinces.
Huge labor forces were needed to accomplish the goals of the Neo-Assyrian state.
Since so many Assyrians served in the army, the state recruited most agricultural and construction workers from con Tiglath Pileser III.
The inhabitants and their herds were forced to leave the town after it was defeated by the Assyrians.
Assyria's triumph was inevitable because of the First Empires and Common Cultures in Afro-Eurasia.
The king and the empire relied on the nobles for support.
Three mutually reinforcing types of pro paganda were devised by the rulers.
In Egypt and China, they used elaborate architectural complexes to stage ceremonial displays of power.
They made sure that the king and empire were celebrated in different types of texts.
The king's military campaigns and achievements were written on clay and buried in public buildings, where only the eyes of Ashur could see them.
The palace walls were decorated with images of the king and the Assyrian army.
These images show the army's force, showing all who resisted being smashed into submission-- their towns burned, their men killed, impaled on stakes, and their women Capture of an Egyptian City.
During Ashurbanipal's campaign against Egypt, warriors scaled wal s with ladders.
The monarch's palace, numerous temples, and a ziggurat were all inside the walls that were 8 kilometers long.
The main rooms in the palace were decorated with reliefs depicting battles and royal hunts.
The city of Nineveh was made the political capital of the king, who was dissatisfied with the other capitals.
More magnificent than the earlier capitals, Nineveh spread out over 1,800 acres and was surrounded by a 12- kilometer wall, which was decorated with images of state and royal power.
The imperial ideology of the Neo-Assyrian Empire supported and justified its system of expansion, exploitation, and inequality.
In the early stages of expansion, Neo-Assyrian inscriptions and art expressed a determined destiny that drove the regime to expand to the Mediterranean Sea.
The national god Ashur commanded all Assyrians to support the forcible growth of the empire, whose goal was to establish and maintain order and keep an ever-threatening Cosmic Chaos at bay.
Universal order could only be brought by the god Ashur and the king.
The Annals of Ashurbanipal were transformed by the king.
The rulers of Mesopotamia used architecture to signal their power.
When a change of dynasty or other reorganization of power took place, rulers would build new palaces or move their capital city.
In the ninth century bce, Assurnasirpal II established Neo-Assyria as an imperial power with the intention of expanding and controlling surrounding peoples.
All of the empire's peoples were invited to a ten-day celebration after moving the capital and building a new palace.
He erected a stone pil ar next to the throne room to commemorate the event.
I gave them food and drink for 100 days.
I had them bathed and anointed.
What techniques are reflected in 100 containers.
Each campaign is recorded in the yearly report of the king's achievements.
The formation of states was done by the Assyrians.
The rule was written on a rigid social hierarchy.
The First Empires and Common Cultures in Afro-Eurasia fought a war to expand the Land of Ashur.
The state's military commanders had to position armies far and wide to the elites in order to be rewarded with land, silver, and exemptions from royal taxes.
They became the noble as well as the discontent among the nobility.
After Tiglath Pileser III reorganized fall, the empire's who lost their resources had to replace the older landed elites.
The empire's landholdings were temporarily filled by successor states.
The three-millennium-long cul that included both the land and the local people who worked in Mesopotamia was dead because of the Assyrian political vacuum.
When Nineveh conquered the Empire, the throne and elites fell.
The Persians became attached to the lands that they had to work after being forcibly relocated.
In Southwest Asia, families regained imperial power.
They lived on modest plots of land, where they raised a gentler form of imperial rule, based on persuasion and mutual vegetables.
The Persians had arrived in the Middle East during the second millen of Mesopotamia, but the nomadic group of Women in Assyria were more restricted than the Persians were.
Women had almost no control over their lives under the Assyrians' patriarchal nium bce.
It was cru while riding on horseback in the midst of battle because all inheritance passed through the male line.
The Persian tribes were united by his wives after Cyrus told him that he was the father of the children.
All interactions between men and women outside of the family were restricted because of the victory of the Lydians.
The practice of veiling was introduced by Assyrians in the 13th century.
The Persians, whose titutes who serviced the men of the army and worked in the tav ancestors were pastoralists, were forbidden to wear the veil because of their revealed faces.
The ylonians, the Assyrians, and the indigenous found wearing the veil would be dragged to the top of the city's politi wall, stripped of their clothing, and flogged.
The queens of Neo-Assyria followed the same social rules as Alexander the Great but their lives were more comfortable and varied than Alexander the Great's.
They lived in a separate part of the palace with servants who were either women slaves or eunuchs.
The Persian rulers developed an enormous empire if the king died while his heir was still a child, because a queen could serve as regent for her.
The case of Sammuramat, who served as regent from 810 to 806 bce, was from the south of Egypt.
Cyrus ruled the empire until his son came of age.
The Assyrians controlled most of the lands at their peak, and the Babylonians greeted him from the east to the west.
The empire was unstable, but this was an awesome feat.
The Assyrians forced Persian customs on subject people via rigid central control, but the new bureaucracy combined central and local administration and made effective use of the strengths of local tradition, economy, and rule.
The empire was both centralized and multicultural.
The Persians believed that all people were equal, and that they only needed to be loyal to the king to be considered a burden.
Aramaic, a dialect of a Semitic language long spoken in Southwest Asia, became the empire's official language because many of its literate sholders came from Mesopotamia.
Without reorganizing and centralizing, he couldn't expand the empire.
The satraps' loyalty was enforced by military officers, central tax collectors, and spies who monitored the local bureaucrats and officials who administered the government.
The system of fixed taxation and formal tribute allocations was established by the man.
He promoted trade throughout the empire by building roads, establishing a currency and introducing weights and measures.
These strategies were used by Cyrus the Great.
His court artists were free to use the lands that he had brought into his empire.
The social structure of the Persians was similar to that of the Assyrians.
They believed that the god Ahura Mazda was appointed by the king Nebuchadnezzar II.
After freeing them on and charging him with maintaining a perfect order from which the orders of the god allowed them to return to Jeru, they also considered him a Savior.
The salem and rebuild of their temple are different from their Mesopotamian neighbors.
Cyrus was seen as a model ruler by the Greeks who defeated the Persians.
First he sees Chapter 3.
He crystallized the region's traditional beliefs into a formal religious conquered territories held by dozens of different ethnic groups.
The main source for the teachings of Zoroaster is the Avesta, a manage this huge domain, according to a legend written down in the third century.
The Persians succeeded the Assyrians as rulers of Southwest Asia in the sixth century bce.
The teachings of Zoroaster tried to eradicate the Iranian faithful evil.
The consequences of their choices were rewards or punishments away from their animistic beliefs that led them to see all in the afterlife.
The fate of objects, alive and dead, was determined by strict rules of behavior.
Zoroaster promoted belief in the god Ahura Mazda because animals were good.
Intoxicants were used in who had created the world.
There were strict rules for treatment of the dead in Judah.
The Persians believed that the universe was dualistic, that people were left out for beasts and birds of prey.
The Persian kings enjoyed absolute authority, whereas Ahura Mazda was only capable of good.
They were sary, Ahiram was dishonest and wicked.
The Persians believed that the two forces were engaged in a struggle for control of the Zoroastrian notions of ethical behavior.
Zoroastrians treated humans as capable of choosing between good and bad in order to preserve justice and maintain social order.
In order to commemorate his consolidation of power over the Persian state, he commissioned a relief of himself high above the main road leading from Mesopotamia to the modern city of Hamadan in western Iran.
There is a long text in three languages surrounding the images.
This is the earliest Old Persian inscription, and it is a version of the script that was created for this occasion.
Saith Darius the King said these IX were done by him.
The king said that he took prisoners within the battles.
Ahuramazda are the provinces which became rebel myself quickly to Ahuramazda, that this bore me aid, and the other gods who are.
The Lie made them rebel, so it's true, not false.
The king said that the men deceived the people.
The other gods who are are because I was not hand, as was my desire, so I did unto them.
If this record is not family, do not hide it, Saith the King said.
The man who conceal, but tell it to the people, may cause me to do so.
He will not be a Lie-follower nor will he be a weak one.
This is 4.57-9.
If this was punished well.
The king said that he did it the same year.
Rock reliefs such as Darius's Relief at Beisitun were used by local and imperial rulers.
The kings are tied together at the neck.
The key was provided by this inscription.
First Empires and Common Cultures in Afro-Eurasia had to show physical superiority that matched their moral standing.
They were peerless in wielding bows and spears.
The virtues of their nomadic ancestors were revered by all Persian nobles.
A ruling class of priests, nobles, and warriors, an administrative and commercial class, and two laboring groups of artisans and peasants were part of the Persian social order.
Priests maintained the ritual fire in temples, nobles administered the state by paying taxes, warriors protected and expanded the empire, bureaucrats kept records, merchants secured goods from distant lands, artisans rendered raw materials into symbolic form, and peasants grew.
The king was surrounded by powerful Persian nobility.
The men had large landholdings and often served the king as satraps or advisers.
Wealthy merchants were close to the king.
The king's place at the top of the political pyra connections helped Babylonian merchants.
In public ceremonies he presented gold vessels, elabo the trading house of the Egibi family, based in Babylon itself, to rate textiles and jewelry to reward each recipient's loyalty and conduct long-distance trade with regions like Media and Elam demonstrate dependence on the crown.
In addition to the Royal Road, the Persians devised other failures that were serious or even treasonous.
The Red Sea to the Nile River canal was built by Darius.
For exam nels through which water flowed over long distances without ple, they engaged in large-scale road building.
As subjects of the heart of the empire in southwestern Iran, laborers from the local populations toiled on these feats old trade routes from western Anatolia to the of engineering as part of their obligations.
Until Cyrus's time, the Persians used the Royal Road, as did the Persian army, and subjects took who lacked traditions of monumental architecture, visual arts, tribute to the king over this road, and royal couriers used the or written literature or history.
In hot, arid regions, this technique is still used to move water.
The Per Persians used monumental architecture with a sian imperial identity.
The skilled craftworkers from all over the halls and huge open spaces to provide reception rooms for empire labored on the great cities and blended their distinct cul thousands of representatives bringing tribute from all over the tural influences into a new Persian architectural style.
As a way to help integrate the subject peoples, begin empire and as a way to bring them to one central, imperial authority.
There was an audience, a huge treasury, harem, and residential spaces on top of a huge platform.
The largest palace was made of mud brick.
The roof was supported by columns.
The forces of nature are depicted in the lion attacking the bull.
The human-headed lion griffins are above the central plane.
The known for its abundant resources was shown in a highly refined program of visual propaganda.
The carvings on the great stairway of Persepolis offer a verita rulers of all of the major agricultural areas.
The Hittites were forced to move their capital from bowls, the Lydians from Anatolia carried gold armlets and deafness, and the Egyptians offered exotic animals.
The Neo-Assyri's move didn't save the empire, which soon collapsed, and the Persians fashioned their own brands capital burned to the ground.
Many fortified cities of Assyria were conquered and taken by 'houses'.
1200 bce caused grievous suffering on the lands bordering their money and property.
It was only the eastern Mediterranean.
There is no evidence that the Neo-Assyrian doubt that climate change was a major underlying cause has waned after this period of suffering.
The state was able to grow.
Farmers in the Mediterranean and Southwest Asia were not able to export their products due to the violent migrations brought about by the Diminished rains.
The decline of the people of the Danube River basin in central Europe was vividly captured by the Athenian historian.
He remembered a dark age when there was no commerce and a rapid rise in population when people did not have dealings with each other without fear.
The invaders brought turmoil to the peoples living in the port city of northern Syria, which is an important port city in what is today northern Syria.
The power of empires and regimes in the region was found in the remains of the destroyed palace, as well as increased tablets that report on the impending disaster in value of mobility as peoples vied for resources.
The king of Ugarit sent a tablet to the king of Alashia of the Aegean Sea and Southwest Asia and the threat came from the fringe.
It was the first country to fall.
The Hittites, who dominated the central lands of enemy that came here, inflicted a lot of damage on us.
The invaders reached the Mediter.
The major centers of the coast and inland used boats for transportation.
The pharaohs were able to repel them because they marshaled all the resources of their land.
Outside of Egypt, states and kingdoms suffered a lot.
The Sea Peoples' intrusion shook the social order of the Minoans on the island of Crete.
The Neo-Assyrian and Persian palace-centered bureaucracy and priesthoods of the second Empires were beyond the reach of agricultural production.
Although their powerful neighbors affected them, millennium bce vanished, more violent societies emerged that relied on the newcomers' iron weapons.
Their communities were composed centuries after the events of the war.
It was smaller than Southwest Asia and each of the oral tales passed down and embellished for genera had a long-term influence that was disproportionate to its size.
The kingdoms and states of Southwest marauders, originally located in southern Europe, needed to pour out Asia and the Mediterranean in order to find new, more favorable territo destructive and traumatic.
They were also creative because of ries.
They undermined the Hit and wiped out traditional ways of doing things on the island of Crete.
The New Kingdom state in Egypt was troubled by violent change.