World War I Review Pt. 1
Woodrow Wilson: Woodrow Wilson was the 28th President of the USA and served from 1913 to 1921. He kept America neutral in World War I until April 2, 1917, when he asked Congress for a declaration of war on Germany. He sought international peace and presented his ideas in a series of peace proposals called the Fourteen Points. However, his proposal failed since Britain and France refused to accept the terms at the Paris Peace Conference since they wanted to hurt Germany.
Kaiser William II: Wilhelm II, an emperor of Germany, wanted to assert his power and flaunt Germany's military. He forced Otto Von Bismark into resignation, and lost the treaty with Russia, allowing a defensive alliance to be formed between France and Russia. This was problematic, as Germany shared a border with both, meaning the nation would be forced to fight a two-front war in the case of conflict. Wilhelm II also turned his efforts to creating a navy that matched the power of Great Britain. Threatened by this, England also formed an alliance with France, resulting in the Triple Entente between Russia, England, and France.
Gavarillo Princip: Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife, Sophie, were assassinated by a “Black Hand” Bosnian Serb (by the name Gavrilo Princip) on June 28, 1914 during a visit to the Bosnian capital Sarajevo. Princip wanted to prevent Austria-Hungary from ruling Bosnia (nationalism). Serbia was given an ultimatum by Austria-Hungary, which led to A/H declaring war since Serbia was unable to accept every demand. Other countries were dragged into the war by obligation to their allies, ultimately marking the beginning of the Great War.
Lenin: Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov was the major leader of the Russian Bolsheviks. In the early 1900s, he planned to overthrow the czar and was dubbed “Father of the Revolution” in 1917 after the Russian Revolution. He was a radical revolutionist who lived from 1870-1924.
Black Hand: Black Hand was a Serbian terrorist organization focused on the liberation of Serbs in foreign countries. Members had tuberculosis, a fatal disease. This group, specifically Gavrillo Princip, was responsible for the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand and his wife, Sophie. The goal was to rid Bosnia of the Austrian rulers.
Schlieffen Plan: The Schlieffen Plan was developed by General Alfred Graf Von Schlieffen. The original plan was to take France and then double back to fight Russia to avoid a two-front war. However, the defeat at Marne gave Russia time to attack and Germany was forced to split their army. It collapsed when the Germans lost the First Battle of the Marne and Russian forces had already invaded Germany.
Zimmerman Telegram: The Zimmerman telegram was a secret diplomatic message issued by the German foreign secretary, Arthur Zimmerman, that proposed an alliance to Mexico. Germany would help Mexico recover land in Texas, Arizona, and New Mexico if accepted. The British intercepted the message and gave it to the USA. The threat was an undeclared declaration of war by Germany, and was one of the reasons why the USA joined WWI.