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18.5 Solubility Equilibria and the Solubility
In Chapter 5, we learned that a precipitation reaction can occur when we mix two solutions containing ionic compounds and one is insoluble.
The product of the concentrations of the ionic components raised to their stoichiometric coefficients is the Ag2CrO4 reaction.
As long as solid CaF2 is present, the CaF2 will keep dissolving.
The solution will remain the same if the solid has already dissolved.
The reaction doesn't make progress in either direction.
The amount of solid may not be visible.
The precipitation reaction occurs when a small seed crystal of solid sodium acetate is dropped into the solution.
The equilibrium amount of dissolved ion is held by the solu tion.
If you mix a silver nitrate solution with a potassium iodide solution, you will get a mixture of AgNO3 and KI.
One of the cross products is KNO3 and it will not cause any problems.
A solution containing lead(II) nitrate is mixed with one containing sodium bromide to form a solution that is less than 0.10 M in Pb(NO3)2 and less than 0.10 M in NaBr.
We can separate the dissolved magnesium and calcium cations by adding a reagent that will separate them.
It is a good choice for the precipitating reagent to be asoluble hydroxide.
The magnesium and calcium are present in the water.
When the OH- reaches 1.9 * 10 M, magnesium hydroxide begins to leave solution.
The magnesium hydroxide continues to form.
At some point, the OH- becomes high enough to cause the calcium ion to form.
When Ca(OH)2 begins to form, this is the concentration of Mg2+.
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