8. Cities and Urban Land-Use Patterns and Processes
There are three parts to this chapter: Know the Theory, Know the Models, and Know the Concepts.
Suburbanization, gentrification, city types, urban change, economies, and sustainable issues are included in the concepts section.
The basic concept of central place theory is at the heart of all urban models.
The central place theory states that all market areas are focused on a central settlement that is a place of exchange and service provision.
The market areas of settlements overlap at different scales.
Small settlements have smaller, more numerous market areas than large settlements.
Consumers are willing to travel large distances to access services in large settlements.
The number of services in small settlements are closer to consumers.
A research done in the 1920s by German theorist Walter Christaller showed that there is a hierarchy of places across the landscape.
hexagons were used to represent individual market areas by Christaller.
He put smaller-scale patterns with larger-scale layers of hexagonal market areas.
An example of Christaller's theoretical principles can be found in the diagram below.
The hinterland of the city contains three towns and five villages.
You can get a 20-ounce bottle for $1.29 at the convenience store.
If you want a 2-liter bottle, head to a grocery store.
If you want a case of twenty-four 20-ounce bottles, go to the big-box warehouse store.
Minimum number of people required to support a business is the threshold of a service.
The maximum distance that people are willing to travel to get access to a service is the range.
The concepts are modified by income and travel time.
The earnings of the local population are used to calculate Threshold.
If the population's income supports the business, a luxury car dealership will exist in an area, even if it has larger population requirements than a regular car dealership.
In travel time, a consumer needs to get to a service location.
People don't know how long it takes to get somewhere, but they can tell you.
When it comes to how long it takes to reach a destination, traffic patterns are more important than distance.
Like the soda bottle example, decisions regarding access to a service are dependent on the amount of travel time and the necessity of the service.
The convenience store is for immediate consumption, the grocery store is for the week's consumptive needs, and the warehouse store is for the month's consumptive needs.
Similar business activities can be found in a local cluster.
Competition is common in heavily populated areas.
Some types of businesses with similar building space requirements are often pushed into the same local areas.
Firms will often locate near one another in search of technical knowledge and labor-sharing in the case of manufacturers and corporate services.
There may be a local advantage for certain types of companies to locate in one place.
Close proximity to the high-tech growth poles of Stanford University and the NASA Ames Research Center is why computer hardware and software firms are located in the Silicon Valley area south of San Francisco.
The location of the Great Lakes for iron-ore delivery by water and proximity to coal in the Midwest and Appalachia made Detroit the location of choice for automobile companies.
South Dakota has no corporate taxes and limited banking regulations.
Large corporate and institutional accounts are held at some national banks to avoid high auditing costs and banking profit taxes in other states.
Think back to when the cities were just settlements.
The central place theory discusses why cities are located in a particular place and how they became prominent places among the mass of other similar settlements.
Access to resources and access to transportation are two categorical factors that determine the origin of an urban place.
Resource nodes are towns and cities that were founded because of access to natural resources.
Transport nodes are places that were founded as settlements due to their location as intersection of two or more lines of transportation.
The lines of transportation include oceans, rivers, bays, trails, roads, and rail lines.
The airports are also used for transportation.
The trading post that is now downtown Sacramento was established in the 19th century.
The location of the fort was at the base of the Sierra Nevada Mountain foothills, where gold was discovered in 1849.
San Francisco, despite its association with the gold rush, was founded in 1776 at the tip of the peninsula that separates San Francisco Bay from the Pacific Ocean.
The Golden Gate is the bridge that spans the narrow canal between the bay and the ocean.
From San Francisco Bay, riverboats brought people and goods inland to Sacramento, where gold was brought back to the state capital.
Rural settlements are usually described as being clustered or dispersed.
All of the residential and farm structures of multiple households are arranged closely together in a cluster rural settlements.
Households are separated by significant distances in dispersed rural settlements.
In Europe and New England, people of the same culture group or clan settled nearby one another for social interaction, use of common land holdings, and security.
Large land holdings spread homes far apart in the farm regions of the American South, Midwest, and Great Plains.
Many settlers had no family or cultural ties here.
Circular or linear settlements can be found in clustered patterns.
Circular settlements are usually a circle of homes.
These can be found in medieval-era German and English towns as well as the enclosed villages of tribal herding communities in sub-Saharan Africa.
Linear settlements tend to follow along a road or a stream front.
The concept of site has to do with the physical characteristics of a place or its absolute location.
The situation has to do with a place's relationship with other locations or its relative location.
New York City is located on a large, deep, enclosed water harbor at the end of the Hudson River.
Other colonial ports had large harbors but were not connected to inland waterways.
New York had an economic advantage because of this site characteristic.
The city's access to Albany gave traders in New York City a link to large volumes of natural resources and the early manufacturing centers of inland New England.
The New York Harbor is located on the open Atlantic Ocean and has access to the wind-driven sailing trade routes coming from Africa, Latin America, and the Caribbean.
By the early 1800s, New York City's optimal port location became the trade and financial capital of the United States.
Today, site and situation can be used to compare the economic prominence of cities.
Economic site factors such as land, labor, and capital can be used to estimate the capacity of industry and services to develop in a particular place.
There is intense competition between cities for new jobs.
Indicators of the potential for urban economic development include how much land is developed, how educated the workforce is, and how much investment capital is available in a city.
Half of the world's population live in urban settlements.
Most North Americans spend less than 10 percent of their time outdoors.
The built environment is the most important spatial environment for the majority of us.
The built environment includes structures such as houses, schools, stores, workshops, businesses and recreational facilities.
On a larger scale, the cities, towns, villages, and suburbs are our built environment.
Our social environment, also called social space, is where people meet and interact and carry on with their daily activities.
Shelter from the elements and wild animals is one of the important functions of housing.
Housing is an important factor in human health according to the World Health Organization.
One's health is directly impacted by how safe and clean one's housing is.
Housing needs to be warm and dry.
Building codes and inspections make sure that safe buildings are built and maintained.
They prevent us from building near polluted rivers and industries.
Housing needs to be clean and provide safe drinking water.
It should provide us with a sense of well-being and a safe place for our children to play.
The necessary elements must be present in other parts of the built environment.
You will need to know a number of urban models for the AP Human geography exam.
The structure of the model is only part of the process that allows you to answer the "where" questions.
You need to be able to explain who, why, and how behind the different parts of the model.
Real-world examples of what these theoretical models represent are required.
You will remember the shape if you can explain the different parts of the model.
To spend more time understanding how the models work and what their parts represent, as opposed to trying to memorize the shapes of the models, is the way to go.
Knowing how the models have changed over time will help you remember and understand the models better.
Think of the models as evolutionary steps along the way to better understand the changing urban landscape.
You will need to be able to explain the development, distribution, and size of cities on the AP exam.
The first publication of the concentric zone model was in 1923.
During the height of industrialization, the model shows the city of the United States and Canada.
A number of different terms are used to describe the five rings in the model.
You don't know how questions or potential answers could be worded, so be familiar with the variations.
It's a theoretical model and no city is perfectly laid out in nice, even rings.
Let's look at the historical and current interpretations of each zone.
All cities have a central business district.
The highest density of commercial land use can be found in the CBD.
The tendency to build skyscrapers that maximize the use of one parcel of urban land is characterized by verticality.
The downtown intersection is surrounded by the most expensive pieces of real estate and contains the peak land value intersection.
The central business district is surrounded by an area of low density commercial land that contains space dependent activities such as factories, warehouses, rail yards, and port facilities.
In the era of deindustrialization, many American and Canadian cities have rebuilt former industrial areas into festival landscapes, turning them into parks, museums, sports stadiums, arenas, convention centers, and outdoor concert venues.
Skydome in Toronto, the Inner Harbor of Baltimore, and the Olympic Park in Atlanta are examples.
The average worker did not have a car or access to public transportation when the city model was first developed.
Most people lived close to work since walking and streetcars were the main mode of transportation.
High density housing surrounds the industrial zones.
Poor tenements, small apartments, row houses, and townhouses were some of the types of housing structures.
Some of these areas have been replaced or renovated through a process of gentrification.
Most of the inner city neighborhoods remain low-income and have public housing projects.
Detached single- family homes began to appear on the outskirts of American cities in the 1870s.
There was a place in Illinois.
The design of Central Park in New York City is an example of the Victorian-era garden city movement.
The homes were designed to look like European farmhouses with front lawns, and were built for the growing urban middle class of Chicago.
The detached single- family home is the most common housing structure in suburbs.
There are lots in different sizes from a quarter acre to over an acre.
A large amount of land is required for suburban housing.
During the Great Depression and World War II, the expansion of the suburbs ceased.
American suburban growth took off after the war.
Middle-class to upper-class people live in the suburbs.
Suburban areas have 52 percent of the American population living there, compared to 26 percent in inner cities and 21 percent in rural areas.
We would vastly expand the "zone of better residences" as the suburbs have pushed outward and become the largest of the concentric zones.
There is a section on suburbanization in this chapter.
The wealthy area of people who own large tracts of land outside the city is known as the commuter zone.
Some of these could be described as country estates, while the owners of other exurban homes could be described as suitcase farmers, who kept farms outside of town.
In the early 1900s, these people could afford large homes, but they also could afford a personal vehicle or daily train ticket into town.
Many exurbs still have the feel of large country estate homes on multi-acre lots.
Suburban and exurban areas in large cities have pushed traditional agricultural areas.
A number of regulations have been developed, including farmland protection laws, minimum-acreage zone, and development boundary zones.
In addition to being a spatial model of the city, the concentric zone model has particular use as an economic model.
The cost-to-distance relationship of real estate prices in the urban landscape is represented by the bid-rent curve.
The land-rent curve is similar to the model described in Chapter 7.
The peak land value intersection is shown by the bid-rent curve, a cost function that shows the exponential increase in land prices.
One way to remember the principle of exponential cost increase is to remember that space for downtown commercial real estate is sold or leased by the square foot.
Land in the suburbs is sold by the acre.
You could plot land uses along the curve.
The price of land for a suburban apartment building is the same as it is for a suburban home.
Land for an apartment building and land for a downtown building are vastly different in price.
In 1939 the sector model of urban structure was proposed.
The model applies to cities in both the US and Canada.
The industrial corridor and neighborhood concepts are combined in the model.
The result is a much more realistic representation of the city.
The ethnic variations in the city are depicted in the model.
This is a standard central place model.
Outside of the core business district, industrial space tended to be organized as a linear corridor around a main transportation line.
This could be a main rail line, parallel rail yard, or harbor area.
Both sides of the corridor have equal access to transport.
A corridor of upper-class housing extended outward from the central business district of several cities.
The Upper East Side in Manhattan, the Chicago North Shore, and Grosse Pointe in Detroit are examples of this.
The working-class neighborhoods are located along the industrial corridor.
The lower-class housing areas were seen as ethnic by other theorists as a result of immigration to industrial cities.
By comparison, the middle-class areas of the city are broken into wide, separate areas that are outside of downtown.
White Anglo-Saxon Protestants dominated the socio-cultural makeup of these areas.
WASPs were the majority in suburban middle-class neighborhoods until the late 1960s, when middle-class inner-city residents began to move out in large numbers.
The phenomenon of people leaving inner-city areas of the United States as white flight has been described by many people.
Not everyone that left the city was white, and not everyone that left the inner city was white.
Many inner-city residents with middle-class incomes moved to suburban districts to escape the social unrest and economic decline of the 1960s and 1970s.
Although most non-white suburban migrants integrated into mostly white suburban neighborhoods in small numbers, this was not always the case.
In Prince George's County, Maryland, there is a mixture of suburban and inner-city neighborhoods with large numbers of African Americans.
The multiple-nuclei model of urban structure was proposed in 1945.
This is an evolutionary step in the conceptualization of the city.
The first recognition of suburban business districts is seen in the model.
The basic principles are explained in a simplified graphic.
The multiple-nuclei model attempts to represent the urban landscape with neighborhoods and commercial corridors.
The term "multiple-nuclei" means that there is more than one commercial center within the city landscape, instead of being focused on the center of the city.
Service industries followed the spread of new suburbanCBDs in post-World War II cities.
Service providers came to the suburbs to be closer to their consumers and members of the service workforce, as will be discussed in the section on suburbanization later in this chapter.
There were new areas of industrial development in the city.
The new manufacturing locations that were added for war production are depicted in the area labeled 1A.
Many downtown factory districts had no room for expansion so it was necessary to expand to the suburbs.
Heavy industry such as aircraft production and new automobile plants can be found on large tracts of land in the city.
In the last quarter of the 20th century, the OldCBD was an area at risk.
"Deindustrialization" meant that old factories and related industries were closed down.
Capital investment into downtown real estate dwindled as a result of the labor force moving away.
The most prominent place in the urban economy has lost consumers and sources of income.
The country was moving away from manufacturing to a service-based economy.
Money was invested in commercial real estate as services migrated to the suburbs.
The oldCBD began to look dated.
Many prominent retailers that used to be located on Main Street were replaced by discount stores.
There was little impact on the "urban renewal" projects.
Problems with crime and homelessness cost the city money and diverted attention.
Suburban areas have new malls and shopping centers.
A renewed focus on downtowns received business and government attention in the mid 1990s, when developers continued their focus on suburban expansion and suburbanCBD development.
Cost-effective opportunities to invest in downtown real estate began to emerge after the prices of downtown property dropped in the 1980s and early 1990s.
Many of the "urban redevelopment" projects in cities today have become successful as downtowns have become more appealing and trendy.
In this chapter, you can see more about gentrification.
There is a section on attempts to create "cool" cities in the chapter on urban geography.
In the last half of the 20th century, urban geographers noticed that many of the new suburbanCBDs in the United States and Canada had become specialized toward a particular industrial or service sector.
In many ways, the following model is a representation of the post-industrial city with its many business districts.
As the economy has transitioned to services as the leading form of production, the model represents a distinct decentralization of the commercial urban landscape.
It's not that manufacturing has stopped; it has become specialized.
New manufacturing facilities tend to be smaller and require less land to operate because of the specialization.
These new facilities are usually located in industrial parks on the urban side.
Local governments subsidize them to reduce costs and increase employment opportunities.
Suburban retailing can be found in multiple locations around the city.
An older center from the 1950s or 1960s is near the retail center.
The retail center located at the intersection of the belt highway and the arteries leading out from the old CBD is a newer center built late in the 1970s or 1980s.
SuburbanCBDs are common locations due to their high level of access.
SuburbanCBDs have other types of service specializations.
Commercial development around airports is common.
Local service and commercial land development are important for hub airports, from which airlines serve a large number of regional destinations.
In the late 1990s, AOL and MCI Worldcom located large corporate headquarters just north of Dulles International Airport in the northern Virginia suburbs of the Washington metropolitan area.
The D.C. area is close to federal communication regulators and internet service providers.
Their management workforce needed to travel a lot.
Business travel was very efficient at the Dulles location.
The only problem was that the facilities were built on old farmland where no mailing address had existed before.
When AOL representatives went to the airport post office to figure out the company's new mailing address, they found out that no postal town or city was listed.
A new place was created after the name stuck.
There are models that depict the common urban landscapes of international locations as opposed to the Anglo-American cities of the United States and Canada.
The AP exam has one of these.
The Latin American city model was first presented in 1980.
The model was updated in 1996, but not all introductory textbooks show it.
This is an example of a colonial city.
Many cities in Latin America, Africa, and Asia have been affected by European colonial rule.
Old precolonial cities were demolished and rebuilt by colonial powers.
New cities were built according to plans.
The Latin American model represents the latter.
The Laws of the Indies were enacted by the Spanish government in the New World.
The layout of colonial cities was dealt with in one of the laws.
The model in Latin American cities is similar to the model in Anglo-America.
The Laws of the Indies stipulated that each settlement has a central square.
The style of European cities such as Madrid is at the center of the Plaza Mayor.
The centers of government, religion, and commerce are located around the plaza.
The central business district remains the primary location for businesses.
This is different from the United States and Canada, where a lot of suburbanCBDs dominate the economy.
Most large cities in Latin America have a cluster of skyscrapers at their core.
The Laws of the Indies required that a main boulevard be built from the plaza to the outskirts of the city.
There are boulevards that go out from the central square in some large cities today.
There are three main boulevards in Buenos Aires.
In the colonial era, the spine was the location of the wealthiest merchants' homes.
Many of the old homes have been replaced by high-rise condominiums.
The spine is still an area of wealth and prestige.
Similar to the Sector model, an area of upper-class housing straddles the spine leading outward from the city center.
In the colonial era, social status was gained by having a home in one of the main avenue districts.
This is true today.
In Latin America, the wealthiest people tend to live close to the central business district, whereas in the United States and Canada, the wealthiest people live on the outskirts.
In Spanish colonial settlements, the Laws of the Indies separated housing.
Europeans were only allowed to own homes and live in the city limits.
European architecture and building materials are what inspired the namematurity.
Many of the colonial-era homes are being torn down to make way for high-rise apartment buildings surrounding the city centers.
In the colonial era, this was the area outside of the city limits where people of mixed descent lived. "
in situ accretion" means growth over time in the ground.
This is meant to describe the building materials and architecture of housing, which relied on local timber and mud brick in some areas.
These are areas of middle-class and working-class housing.
Many homes are surrounded by walls.
Parts of old colonial-era homes may still be found in the interiors of these homes.
Most of the urban poor in Latin America live in squatter settlements.
In the United States, the peripheral suburbs are dominated by middle-class housing and the poor are in the inner city areas.
Colonias, barriadas, and invasiones are some of the names that these communities are known by.
After World War II, squatter settlements became a common feature of the Latin American urban landscape.
The rise of industrialization and the numerous civil wars fought in rural regions led to an increase in rural-to-urban migration.
There was little to no available housing for new migrants.
There is a lack of real estate investment for low-income housing in Latin American cities.
In the 1800s and early 1900s, many inner-city dwellings were built to house European immigrant workers in the United States and Canada.
Rural-to-urban migrants in Latin America have been forced to build their own settlements.
Squatters are people who don't own the land.
Governments or agricultural owners often own the land in the city.
Communities of Squatters target land that is sitting unused.
If the new residents make good use of the land, it can be legally squatted upon.
This is a common legal standard in many social democracies and is different from real estate laws in the United States.
To avoid reprisals from the local police and land owners, squatters usually settle a new area overnight with a large number of families.
This is called a land invasion.
Scrap wood, plastic, and blue plastic tarps are some of the building materials that can be used to quickly build a camp.
In some places it is illegal for the government to tear down housing of any type without court authority, so these rudimentary homes may give squatters some legal protections.
The homes are improved over time.
A 30-year-old settlement may look like formal housing with brick walls and metal roofs, along with electric power or other utilities.
As you move further out of the city, the quality of housing declines, as does the availability of utilities and other services.
Land tenure is the legal right or title to the land upon which a home is built.
It can take a long time to formalize property ownership.
There is always a chance that people could be evicted from the land.
In order to minimize the risk, squatting communities often pool their resources to pay off land owners, bribe local officials, or promise local elected leaders the guarantee of votes in exchange for their protection.
Government funding for schools, transit, clean water, and other public services is dependent on political relationships.
The communities are close to the center of the city.
They are built on land that is unsuitable for standard homes and businesses, including steep hillsides, flood plains, old industrial sites, refuse dumps, and land near airports.
They are settled because of their proximity to work opportunities in the city center.
Some of the outlying areas of Rio de Janeiro are partially built on top of one another.
Most of the flat land is taken for formal housing and commercial development as the coastline leaves land available for low-income homes.
Mudslides, flood, or fire can ruin a community, so it's important to settle these areas.
The growth of the region's economy is reflected in the updated model of the Latin American city.
City residents are concerned that the old city character is being lost due to the growth of high-rise apartments in the Zone of Maturity.
The gentrification of colonial-era homes and remaining neighborhoods has been promoted by a number of cities.
The protection of local cultural heritage and the tourist appeal of these neighborhoods are similar to historical preservation efforts elsewhere.
The Zone of Peripheral Squatter Settlements has been expanded to reflect the influx of rural-to-urban migration.
Three features have been added to the model.
In Latin America, shopping malls are common at the outer end of the commercial spine.
A number of major Latin American cities have been built on belt highways.
A beltway is added running through the middle of the zone.
The industrial park zone is on the other side of the model.
Manufacturing boomed in northern Mexico after the passage of the North American Free Trade Agreement.
The world has characteristic urban landscapes.
The Latin American city model was developed in 1967, but the Southeast Asian city model was developed in 1967.
Some of the fastest growing and most densely populated cities in the world are in Southeast Asia.
Some of the tallest buildings on Earth are located in this part of the world, marked by high-rise developments.
The Latin American model has some similarities to the Southeast Asian model.
There is a strip of upper-class housing stemming from the center, middle class residential areas close to the inner city, and the presence of squatter settlements on the periphery.
The zone of government offices is similar to the commercial spine in the Latin American model.
Middle class housing is not included in the models because of the existence of new suburbs on the periphery.
A small middle class in Latin America is reflective of the larger middle class.
There is a lack of a designatedCannabidiolCannabidiol.
There are elements of a traditionalCannabidiol in the model.
The old colonial port zone is a characteristic of many Southeast Asian cities and is centered around the export business.
Light industry and unofficial businesses can be found in the mixed land use zone surrounding the port.
Two immigrant commercial sectors are unique to the Southeast Asian model.
The Western commercial zone is mostly populated by Western businesses.
Chinese merchants who have migrated to these cities tend to reside in the same buildings as their businesses in the alien commercial zone.
These cities tend to have strong ethnic bonds among migrant communities because of the immigrant commercial zones.
While it is difficult to create a singular urban model for a place with a lot of history and culture, De Blij created a model of sub-Saharan African cities in 1968.
Africa is home to the most rapidly urbanizing areas in the world and, like much of Latin America and Southeast Asia, bears the markers of a colonial past.
The history of African urban development is reflected in the three distinctCBDs in the center of the African city model.
The former colonialCBD is laid out on a grid pattern like that of many European cities and contains the most vertical development, as well as being connected to other parts of the city by major, planned roads.
The traditionalCBD is the center of most commercial activity and is characterized by single-story architecture.
The market zone is an open-air area in which informal business can be conducted.
Major industries found in sub-Saharan Africa can be seen in the mining and manufacturing zone at the outskirts of the city.
As in Latin American and Southeast Asia, the quality of residences tends to get poorer closer to the periphery; the informal satellite townships surrounding the mining and manufacturing areas are mostly composed of people who work in the mines.
There is a strong sense of tribalism in Africa.
The lack of upper and middle-class areas is indicative of widespread poverty and lack of development.
The African city model is sometimes criticized as being outdated due to the rapid growth of African cities.
Cities around the world are very different.
There are many different variations within a specific region or country.
In Western Europe, cities are much smaller than in the U.S.
They were developed to allow residents to easily walk everywhere they need to go.
The skyscrapers seen in other parts of the world aren't usually found in urban skylines.
Most people live within walking distance of their schools, work, and shopping because of public transportation.
The flavor of central planning reminds us of the Soviet era in Eastern Europe and countries of the former Soviet Union.
Most of the residents live in apartments because of the division between urban and rural zones.
The central part of the city was used for government activities and recreational parks.
Worker housing is provided near job sites in zones of uniform housing.
The religious make-up, colonial history, socialist influences, and many other cultural and urban land-use influences determine the forms of cities in the developing world.
Mumbai and Kolkata were established as colonial administrative centers by the British and the French respectively.
Other capital cities were built to serve as growth poles and were intended to attract people and industry to that specific region of the country.
Within a cultural realm, urban forms vary greatly.
There are several different types of city in South Asia, ranging from the traditional bazaar city and military installation to the colonial city and the resort city.
A large modern center of commerce, a massive immigrant population from rural regions, rapidly growing rates of natural increase, and huge outer rings of squatter settlements are some of the important characteristics of all developing-world cities.
A lot of urban geography concepts can be tested.
Some of the categories have examples included.
Suburbanization has many links to the material in the Know the Models section.
The detached single- family home is the main feature of the American suburban landscape.
The suburbs are mostly middle-class.
Lower-class suburban neighborhoods exist as do many upper-class suburbs.
The first suburban homes were built in the 1890s.
Frederick Law Olmstead designed the city of Riverside, Illinois.
WASPs populated the original American suburbs.
Between the late 1960s and the 1980s, suburbs became more integrated with Catholic and non-white middle-class populations who used to live in inner-city areas.
Suburban areas accounted for 50 percent of the US population in the 2010 census.
The largest zones within urban models are the suburbs.
Federal home loan programs such as the G.I.
increased homeownership in the United States after World War II.
Millions of war veterans and members of the armed forces were eligible for federal home loans.
Federal programs, such as the Federal Housing Administration and the public finance mortgage corporations Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae, increased the number of mortgages available to the American public with regulated interest rates and limited processing fees.
During the 1950s and 1960s, there was a huge influx of new home construction.
Rates of homeownership were limited prior to World War II.
New large-scale housing developments were constructed after the war.
Demand was so high that factory-style housing construction methods became common.
Levittowns was an example of this.
In places such as Long Island, suburban Philadelphia, San Juan, Puerto Rico, and other cities, the Levitt Company built large communities of single-family homes in a short amount of time.
The homes could be finished in less than 18 days.
The Levitt model was copied by many companies during the 1950s and 1960s.
A number of small service providers located in suburban areas because of the boom in home construction.
From 1945 onward, limited suburban business districts began to emerge.
Basic services included food, the family doctor, fuel, and auto repair, as well as non-basic services such as dry-cleaning and gift shops.
Middle-class flight from the inner city and the deindustrialization of manufacturing economies led to more and larger service providers moving to suburban areas.
People were leaving cities because of two factors.
Service providers realized that a lot of their consumer base moved away from the traditional service centers.
The services were brought to where the consumers lived.
Suburban retail centers and shopping malls became places of service as the old central business district closed down.
Many service firms realized their labor force was moving farther and farther out from the old CBD.
Many corporate-service offices moved to the suburbs because of this.
The service industry jobs were brought to where the white-collar workers lived.
The central places of the post-industrial service economy were established by these two factors.
The contemporary place of business and commerce was replaced by the suburban office park.
Suburban sprawl is the expansion of housing, transportation, and commercial development to the outskirts of the city.
Suburban expansion is not a bad thing.
Is the expansion of suburbs sustainable?
The suburban context can be measured in both economic and environmental terms.
Suburban sprawl is blamed for a number of problems such as traffic congestion, shortfalls in public school funding, environmental degradation, and economic decline in farming.
There are a number of anti-growth movements in the United States and Canada.
New laws and regulations that slow suburban development and limit approval of new suburban roads and highways are pushed for by these groups.
In places where the surrounding rural areas are sensitive to the environment or historical significance, anti-growth sentiment is strong.
In the 1990s, the county board of supervisors enacted a series of growth boundaries that set minimums for the lot sizes of new homes.
On the other side of the argument were real estate agents, developers, and new residents who said that the rapidly increasing home prices in the Washington, D.C. metropolitan area were a reason to increase the local housing supply and loosen the development boundary regulations.
Although there have been some changes to the growth boundaries, most of the central and western part of the county remains rural.
Suburban residents have been forced to move further away from the city due to increased congestion in the suburbs.
The movement of inner-city or suburban residents to rural areas to escape the congestion, crime, pollution and other negative aspects of the urban landscape is called counterurbanization.
These people either work from home or commute long distances to maintain their jobs.
There is a section on urban sustainable in this chapter.
The idea of the edge city was put forward by a journalist in 1991.
The new service-based economy in the United States and Canada was recognized by Garreau.
SuburbanCBDs have grown to immense size and economic prominence.
Some were built on former agricultural areas and others were built on towns that expanded into edge cities.
There has been an increase in the number of people who commute between suburbs and edge cities.
Counter-commuting has been detected from downtown residences to edge city locations.
Traditionally, transportation planners have worked from a hub-and-spoke model of commute.
Large amounts of counter-commuting have made it necessary for transportation plans to have multiple hub-and-spoke traffic-flow patterns centered on edge-city locations.
Tyson's Corner is the quintessential edge city.
Tyson's is located at the intersection of the Capital Beltway and Virginia Routes 7 and 123.
The headquarters of the National Automobile Dealers Association, as well as a number of government contracting and telecommunications firms, can be found in the edge-city complex of nearly 18,000,000 square feet of office space.
Tyson's Corner Center and Tyson's Galleria are the two largest regional shopping malls in the area.
There are a lot of big-box retail stores along Route 7.
Tyson's Corner has more office and retail space than downtown Miami, Florida.
There are many edge cities around New York, Los Angeles, and San Francisco.
Detroit, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Montreal, Toronto, Seattle, San Diego, Dallas-Fort Worth, Phoenix, Atlanta, and Miami are some of the metropolitan areas with multiple edge cities.
"Boomburbs" are incorporated suburbs that have exploded in size to populations of 100,000 or greater.
These "accidental cities" are not the major metropolitan centers in their areas and retain their suburban characters, even as their populations surpass those of some established major cities.
The largest boomburb is Mesa, Arizona, with a population of over 500,000.
The difference between boomburbs and edge cities is that boomburbs were already established communities that have quickly expanded.
They have a higher proportion of residential space than commercial edge cities.
There are a number of city types that are tested on the AP Human geography exam.
The centers of colonial trade or administration are called colonial cities.
Many of the cities retained their European-style buildings and street networks in the postcolonial era.
Newly independent governments often change street names and place-names to reflect local culture and history.
Mumbai, Chennai, and Kolkata have been renamed from their British colonial names of Bombay, Madras, and Calcutta.
Brazil moved their national capitals away from the former colonial capitals.
In 1960, the Brazilian government moved from Rio to Brasilia in order to escape the congestion of the old colonial capital and build a new modern city for the country's government.
The United States and Canada have large colonial-era cities that are often port locations.
The term fall-line cities refers to the ports that lay upstream on coastal rivers at the point where navigation was no longer possible by ocean-going ships.
At the first set of river falls, the fall-line is where a river's tidal estuary transitions to an upland stream.
These were economic break-in-bulk points where ships were off loaded and then packed with trade.
The waterfalls on these rivers could be harnessed for hydropower in the early part of the Industrial Revolution.
In the early American cities, waterwheels were used to drive industrial production of furniture, textiles, and food.
In the 1800s, many fall-line cities became both centers of trade and manufacturing.
Montreal is on the fall-line of the St. Lawrence River.
It is not listed with the other fall-line cities.
Medieval cities were predating the European Renaissance.
In addition to Paris, Rome, and London, medieval cities in Europe include Cologne in Germany, Marseille in France, and York in England, all of which were originally settled during the Roman era.
Istanbul, Turkey; Samarkand, Uzbekistan; Kyoto, Japan; and Beijing, China are medieval cities outside of Europe.
The centers of trade and governance were important during the medieval period.
Immigrants make their way into a country through gateway cities.
Significant immigrant populations tend to be found in gateway cities.
New York City, Miami, and Toronto are examples of gateway cities in the US and Canada.
Entrepot describes a port city in which goods are shipped in at one price and shipped out to other port locations at a higher price, resulting in profitable trade.
The lack of customs duties in most other port cities makes this type of trade possible.
Large centers of finance, warehousing, and the global shipping trade can be found in Entrepots.
There are examples of Singapore and Hong Kong.
The definition of a megacity is a metropolitan area with more than 10 million people.
There are about 28 cities that qualify as megacities.
New York and Tokyo are big world centers.
You should remember places like Mexico City in Mexico, Dhaka in Bangladesh, Cairo in Egypt, and Mumbai in India.
A megalopolis is the merging of the urbanized areas of two or more cities.
The name was given by a Frenchman after he traveled through the Northeastern United States in the 1950s.
Tokyo may be challenged for the world's largest conurbation, or combined city, in the coming decades.
Boston, Providence, New York City, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Washington are all in the Northeastern United States.
All of Virginia's cities are included.
The metropolitan area of the world city designation is a global center for finance, trade and commerce.
An example of urban hierarchy at a global scale can be found in world cities that are ranked in levels of importance.
New York City, London, and Tokyo are the first-order world cities.
Los Angeles, Washington, D.C., Chicago, Frankfurt, Paris, Brussels, Hong Kong, Sao Paolo, and Singapore are the second-order world cities.
The third-order world cities include places such as Miami, Toronto, and Seoul.
When the largest city in a country has at least twice the population of the country's next largest city, it can be designated as a primate city.
In some cases primate cities are larger than the next largest city.
There is a tendency to blame the situation of urban primacy on the economic development of the country.
The primate city has a high population and can provide a lot of economic development and investment.
Bangkok, Thailand, is an industrial and service center with an improving quality of life for its residents.
Much of Thailand is a chronically underdeveloped rural region without access to many services.
This is another example.
The French government regulates industrial investment in order to counter the effects of urban primacy.
The decentralization of industrial development funding has helped regional manufacturing centers.
The rank-size rule is related to the primate city concept.
In countries with long social histories, the urban hierarchy of city populations has been recognized.
Under the rule, a country's second largest city is half the size of its largest city; the third largest city is one-third the size of the largest city, and so on.
The size of the country's largest city is 1/.
Few countries have city populations that follow the rule.
The rule is an approximation of the city hierarchy in the United States and Russia.
There are a few other urban social concepts that are important to know.
segregation and urban social change are important areas of study.
Some ethnic neighborhoods are areas of segregation where no law requires ethnic or racial segregation, but they still remain zones of separation.
In the United States, legal or "de jure" segregation existed in a number of ethnic and racial situations.
De jure segregation is an example of the segregation laws against African Americans in the "Jim Crow" American South.
In the 1800s, Asian immigrants were not allowed to live in certain cities.
Many Chinatowns have their origins in zones where Chinese, Filipino, and Japanese migrants were forced to live.
Discrimination in real estate practices has been faced by African Americans.
In the past, banks and insurers redlined neighborhoods to deny home mortgage and insurance applications.
Rules against redlining are enforced by the Federal Housing Administration.
Restrictive covenants were used to discriminate against people in the real estate system.
At the request of neighbors and local politicians, homeowners added special covenants to their real estate titles, limiting the future sale of a home to white-only buyers.
covenants tried to restrict Jews from buying homes Federal fair-housing laws prohibit such covenants today.
By law, covenants in old titles must be ignored.
Following the Civil Rights Act of 1964, some white urban communities openly engaged in racial steering through the use of real estate agents.
When non-whites tried to buy homes, real estate companies or their agents drove them to certain neighborhoods, regardless of their income or ability to pay for a house.
Block busting is a common practice that many real estate agents and developers profited from.
White homeowners would be persuaded to sell their homes quickly and cheaply by the agents because they believed minorities were moving into their neighborhoods and property values would decline.
They would make a lot of money selling those homes to non-whites who wanted to escape the city.
The Fair Housing Act banned these practices in 1968, but they have continued.
One ethnic group leaves a neighborhood and is replaced by another.
Despite the job losses and out migration caused by deindustrialization, remaining inner-city populations have changed and adapted to the new urban economic landscape.
The gender is a factor in these changes.
In recent decades, the percentage of female-headed households in urban areas has increased.
The subject of geographic research is working mothers.
The urban transportation patterns of working mothers have been studied by a Geographer.
Female heads of household commute differently than male commuters.
Female heads of household are likely to depend on public transportation and must live near bus and subway lines.
They commute from home to work.
Food shopping, health care, and other services must be accessed by women heads of household.
In recent decades, the roles of women in American and Canadian society have changed.
Half of the urban labor force is made up of women.
In terms of pay, access to management positions, and political power, women are now equal to men.
According to educational statistics, women are performing better than men in terms of numbers and grade performance at university.
Women have overtaken men in terms of the number of positions and average pay in two sectors of the service economy.
Hospital administrators and university presidents are some of the senior management positions held by women.
Medical schools in the United States reported in 2008 that entering classes were 50 percent female for the first time.
There is a lot of talk about sustainable living in this book.
This has become an important topic of discussion in everyday life, not just on the AP exam.
There are more urban geography patterns related to economic development that are not mentioned in the chapter on economic geography.
Economic reinvestment in existing real estate is called gentrification.
Deindustrialization left many older areas of cities neglected.
Many residents and businesses left these neighborhoods because of the low real estate prices.
By the 1980s, certain neighborhoods became profitable because of the fall in prices.
The opportunity to take old homes and storefronts and convert them into attractive modern accommodations was first seen by many gentrifiers.
The pattern began in historic areas in the 1970s when people in the historical preservation movement renovated homes in places such as New York City and Georgetown in D.C.
Many of the renovations were attempts to recreate homes and buildings.
Consumer demand for gentrified homes with modern amenities increased.
The cottage industry in gentrification emerged in the 1990s, in which flippers bought old homes at low prices, renovated them to modern standards, and resold them at handsome profits.
In these cases, preservation took a back seat to demand for hot tub, granite countertops, andstainless steel appliances.
Commercial gentrification has occurred in many of the same areas as gentrified homes.
Coffee shops, art houses, bars, and restaurants were rebuilt.
It's also common for mixed-use development.
There are loft apartments in the same building as stores and office space.
Whole newly renovated districts have emerged in many cities as a result of gentrification.
Neighborhood-scale gentrification has a negative effect on low-income residents leaving the community.
The price of non-gentrified real estate in the area increases as the number of gentrified homes increases.
Rents increase to unsustainable levels for many urban poor people.
Elderly residents who have lived in these neighborhoods all their lives are hard hit by this.
Finding a new home can be difficult for elderly people, which can be costly for city governments.
Infrastructure requirements of cities are a concern for urban governments and investors.
Economic growth tends to occur in urban areas where utilities, transportation, safety, health, and education needs are met.
Specialty retailing, art, music, culture, nightlife, and other cool city amenities are what city leaders want to create.
New businesses are attracted to the city by all of this.
Old central business districts have suffered from deindustrialization.
Many city governments are trying to attract high-paying service industry jobs to old downtowns.
By making the city attractive to young, educated business people, the hope is that major service industry firms in high-paying fields such as technology, computing, research and development, and other creative industries will relocate downtown.
It is not easy to attract new service firms.
Companies tend to locate their offices close to growth poles.
The NASA Ames Research Center in the suburbs south of San Francisco was mentioned earlier in the chapter.
There are a lot of companies and investment in computer hardware and software around these centers.
Local real estate prices have skyrocketed because of the high-paying technology jobs.
Standard three-bedroom homes in Palo Alto can cost up to $1.6 million.
A one-bedroom apartment can cost over $2,000 a month.
The issue of affordable housing for Silicon Valley residents who are not engaged in the technology economy has become a major urban social issue.
High pay and limited housing have inflated real estate prices in a number of US cities.
San Diego, Washington, D.C., Seattle, Boston, New York, and Portland saw significant real estate price increases from the late 1990s until 2008.
Even though prices have rebounded after the 2008 mortgage crash, affordable homes are still out of reach for many urban residents.
The economic and environmental aspects of urban growth and development are measured.
Simple answers to questions of sustainable living are rare.
There are a lot of problems for urban government leaders and policymakers because of political attitudes and practical considerations.
There are many possible solutions to every sustainable problem.
It's important for urban governments to find solutions that are affordable and specific to local needs.
In addition to the problem of inflated real estate prices, city governments must address economic sustainable in terms of public services like transportation, utilities, health care access, public housing, and the most expensive: education.
Large city governments have had difficulty balancing depressed commercial tax revenues with high cost of maintaining municipal services since deindustrialization.
The large size of municipal payrolls has been criticized by city governments.
The local public workforce is paid most of the time by the municipal budgets.
Laying off city workers would reduce public services and increase the costs of social welfare programs for the unemployed and homeless.
New sources of tax revenue are hard to come by, which is why there is a focus on development projects like hotel and convention centers, as well as attracting new high-paying service jobs to the old central business district.
Combining the municipal governments of the core city with the multiple town governments of the surrounding suburbs is one approach to combat the high costs of running urban governments.
Administrative costs would be reduced and cost efficiency would be increased with the creation of a regional municipality.
There is a way to come up with a system of shared governance.
In Canada, regional municipalities are common around large cities.
In the United States, there are examples of large regional municipalities.
Suburban governments have financial problems of their own.
In some areas of the country, the property taxes collected on homes don't meet the cost and demand for high-quality schools.
If the typical suburban home produces two children who go into the public education system, and if schools spend upwards of $8,000 per student annually to educate them, then property taxes must raise $16,000 per home each year or be provided by state income taxes.
The additional costs of police and fire protection are not included.
School bond levies that raise money by increasing property taxes are often voted down by homeowners.
School systems are caught between a public that doesn't want to pay higher taxes and parents who want their children to attend high-quality schools.
As a result, local school districts are increasingly dependent on state governments to help meet funding needs or are forced to increase class sizes.
Local air pollution, wetlands loss, parkland creation, and solid waste management are some of the environmental issues that concern urban governments.
The question of how the environment will be impacted by urban development is one of the problems.
There is a lot of discussion about urban transportation.
There is public pressure on local politicians to come up with solutions to traffic congestion in the United States and Canada.
The high cost of road construction and federal clean air regulations make it difficult for local leaders to build highways.
There are two scales of environmental impact from air pollution from cars.
Smog from vehicle emissions can be harmful to public health.
Carbon dioxide emissions from cars are a significant source of greenhouse gases that contribute to the problem of global warming.
The benefits of mass transit, such as having fewer cars on the highway, reduced emissions, and increased accessibility for low-income citizens, have become important for almost all cities.
There are many people who support subways, dedicated busways, and street-level light rail networks.
Property owners whose land is used for these projects complain about their losses.
The cost of construction and vehicles can be more than what can be raised from rail and bus fees.
Who should pay for mass transit?
Local governments usually find other sources of tax revenue to pay for it.
Adding to the "cool" value of cities is the desire for additional downtown housing.
This is beneficial for the environment because it stops sprawl from encroaching on farmland or sensitive environments such as wetlands.
By having workers live downtown close to their jobs, new downtown housing can be used to reduce transportation impacts, fossil fuel use, and air pollution.
The city governments work with building developers to find vacant downtown land for new construction.
Many cities are able to simultaneously solve pollution issues and create new space for residential and commercial developments through the process of Brownfield Repatriation, a process in which hazardous contaminants are removed or sealed off from former industrial sites.
redeveloped into housing or business complexes There are other types of spaces that can be converted.
Sometimes old schools and library buildings are turned into loft apartment complexes.
Mixed-use buildings have both housing and commercial space.
Several large mixed-use developments have been constructed.
The New Urbanism refers to these types of developments.
Many cities have enacted laws that separate commercial and residential space.
New Urbanism has forced cities to re-examine the viability of their codes.
Many cities have added new categories that allow for mixed-use development and special planning districts where housing, public transit, and office space are more spatially integrated.
The criticism of mixed-use downtown housing developments is similar to that of gentrification.
Only upper-middle-class income-earners can afford to live in the downtown area because of the high purchase and rental prices.
Some cities require that a certain percentage of new construction be priced specifically for lower- to middle-income buyers and renters.
Urbanization: An introduction to urban geography, 3rd edition was written by Paul L. Knox and Linda M. McCarthy.
The basis of all urban models is the central place theory.
Small markets like towns can be contained within larger markets like one in a major city.
Suburbanization has had a tremendous impact on the American urban landscape since the mid-20th century.
Major employers followed as new residents moved to the suburbs.
SuburbanCBDs have grown into edge cities composed of office and retail space but few residential areas.
Discrimination in real estate and urban planning is illegal in the U.S., but ethnic and racial segregation is common in urban areas.
Many low-income and elderly residents are driven out of neighborhoods when housing becomes too expensive.
Population booms in both cities and suburbs have led to economic and environmental concerns.
Suburban sprawl and auto traffic have been cut down by the development of mass transit and new downtown housing.
There are answers and explanations at the end of this chapter.
Santiago has ten times as many people as the next biggest city.
suburbia has been the main model of American life since the 1950s.
Minimum number of people required to support a business is the threshold of a service.
The maximum distance people are willing to travel for a service is referred to as the range.
Travel time is the amount of time an individual will travel for a service.
Innovative ideas originate from the D region.
Spatial perspective is concerned with observing variations in geographic phenomena.
A megacity is a metropolitan area with more than 10 million people.
If you don't know the answer to a strict definition question like this, try to narrow down choices like (A) and (E) that seem too extreme.
Increased access to mass transit is a potential solution to some of the problems caused by a high volume of vehicles on the road in urban areas.
Environmental damage due to greenhouse gases is one of the problems.
The peak land value intersection is the point in a city that has the highest land value.
The higher the land value rises, the closer another parcel of land is.
As you drive into the center of Chicago, the cost of housing increases.
The sector model accounts for variations in the ethnic makeup of neighborhoods.
Immigrants often move into low-income housing near the manufacturing and shipping corridors.
The choice is correct.
In Latin America, the urban poor are located at the outer edges of the city.
The reasons for this are many, but one significant one is the fact that many poor people have relocated to the cities after being forced off their land due to political unrest and uprisings.
The urban poor are usually located in the center of the city.
An edge city is any part of a suburb that is conceived of as a business district.
It has grown because of the new emphasis on the service sector.
The growth of large suburban shopping malls was caused by retailers following the jobs.
Many of the suburban business districts have become large due to the lack of a city government.
A primate city is when the largest city in a country has more people than the next largest city.
There is a feeling of being two different classes of people: those who live in the primate city and those who live everywhere else.
Argentina, Egypt, South Korea, and France have all experienced this phenomenon.
The answer is correct.
The garden city movement began in the 1870s as a response to the messiness and chaos of the rapidly growing inner cities.
Their innovation was to imitate small European estates on the outskirts of the city, served by streetcar lines into the center of modern suburbia.
Choices are hallmarks of urban zones.
Growth boundaries are laws enacted by county boards to limit the growth of real estate.
The minimum lot size is often required by these rules so that fewer homes can be built in the area.
Smaller lots, more housing, and higher population density are the result of communities without such rules.
The fair-housing laws are part of a newer generation of federal laws.
These are meant to counteract the redlining, restrictive covenants, and racial steering that were used to segregation in places where it wasn't explicitly allowed.