Edited Invalid date
28 -- Part 7: World War and Revolution
The German army went on the offensive in France in the spring of 1918 after the victory over Russia.
German armies came within thirty-five miles of Paris but never broke through.
They were stopped in July at the second Battle of the Marne.
Adding 2 mil ion men in arms by August tipped the scales in favor of Allied victory.
The British, French, and American armies were moving quickly.
The German emperor formed a new government on October 4.
The frustrated Ger man people rose up as the negotiations dragged on.
The Russian soviet model was used by soldiers and workers in northern Germany.
Austria-Hungary surrendered to the Al ies on the same day.
The German emperor abdicated and fled to Holland.
Socialist leaders in Berlin agreed to surrender after they proclaimed a German republic.
The armistice took effect on November 11, 1918.
Military defeat brought political revolution to Austria-Hungary as it had to Germany, Russia, and the Ottoman Empire.
The independent states of Austria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, and a larger Romania were created out of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
The Slavs in the western Balkans were united by the Serbian monarchy.
The peace conference began in January 1919 with delegates from twenty-seven nations.
There were a lot of expectations.
The victors were going to Paris.
We were preparing for Eternal Peace.
The United States, Great Britain, and France were the real powers at the conference.
The three Al ies began to argue immediately after the conference to protect member states from aggression.
The first wars were insisted on by President Wilson.
The prime ministers of Great Britain and France were not enthusiastic about Wilson's plan.
They wanted to punish Germany.
The "Big Three" were unable to agree on what to do with Germany.
Lloyd George felt pressured to win the war because he was inclined to make a moderate peace with Germany.
The creation of a buffer state between France and Germany, as well as the permanent demilitarization of Germany, was what he wanted for France.
The conference was deadlocked on the German question by April because Wilson wouldn't hear this.
A compromise was reached in the end.
He gave up the French demand for a buffer state in exchange for a formal alliance with the United States and Great Britain.
Wilson had won his goal of a permanent international organization.
Changes to eastern Europe were brought about by the Great War.
Empires were shattered, new nations were established, and a dangerous power vacuum was created by the relatively weak states.
The League of Nations gave France, Britain, and Japan colonies in 1919.
The treaty limited Germany's army to one hundred thousand men and forced it to pay for the fications in the Rhineland.
The Allies declared that Germany was responsible for the war and had to pay compensation to everyone who had been hurt.
There was a chance that the figure could be set at a reasonable level when tempers cooled in the future.
Austria, Hungary, Bulgaria, and Turkey were defeated by the Allies.
The treaties merely codify the situation in east-central Europe after the break up of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
Britain and France extended their power in the Middle East after the Ottoman Empire was broken up.
Despite strong French objections, Hussein ibn-Ali's son attended the peace conference, but his efforts to secure Arab independence came to nothing.
France received Lebanon and Syria.
In 1917, Britain promised a Jewish national homeland in Palestine and Iraq, which it took.
One of the most imperialistic elements of the peace settlement was the Allied acquisitions.
There was a mandating that Germany's holdings in China be moved to Japan.
The man dates system left colonial peoples in the Middle East and Asia bitterly disappointed, and demonstrated that the age of Western, and Eastern, imperialism lived on.
For war-shattered Europe, the 1919 peace settlement was an acceptable beginning.
Germany was not dismembered.
There was a new world organization and a traditional alliance of victorious powers.
The remaining lems could be worked out in the future.
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