12 -- Part 7: Cultural Exchange in Central and Southern Asia to
The development of regional cultures was fostered by political division.
Literature was written in India's regional languages.
The coast of India was important in the sea trade of the Indian Ocean.
The first encounters with Islam took place in this period.
In 711, the Umayyad governor of Iraq sent a force with six thousand horses and six thousand camels to seize the Sind area in western India.
The western part of India was part of the caliphate for hundreds of years.
The coastlines of South and Southeast Asia aided seafaring.
Most east-west sea trade passed through the Strait of Malacca.
After converting to Islam, they first served as military forces for the caliphate in Baghdad, but as its authority waned, they made themselves rulers of an independent Khurasan and sent raiding parties into north India.
From his base in modern Afghanistan, Mahmud led seventeen annual incursions into India.
He wanted to plunder to finance his wars against other Turkish rulers.
The Arabs fell to the Turks.
The Turks were in control of the northwest India by 1030
The Muslims and Jews are allowed to follow their religion.
They had to pay a special tax, but they didn't have to serve in the military.
Local chiefs and rajas were often allowed to remain Christians and Jews, as long as they paid tribute to their religion.
Indians had to pay a special tax.
The newcomers were isolated by the various castes.
Islam gained a strong hold on north India over the course of several centuries, especially in modern Pakistan and Bengal at the mouth of the Ganges River.
The sultanate seems to have had a positive effect on the economy.
India's first truly large cities emerged after the wealth from temples was put to better use.
The Turks wanted to employ skilled workers and give new opportunities to low-caste manual and artisan labor.
Bud dhism was seen as a competitive proselytizing religion by the Muslim rulers.
The great Buddhist university was destroyed by a Turkish raiding party.
Buddhist monks were forced to flee to Buddhist centers in Southeast Asia, Nepal, and Tibet.
Buddhism went into decline in its native land after it flourished in peaceful and friendly competition with Hinduism.
Hinduism remained strong.
Traditional Hindu culture flourished in South India despite the invasions.
devotional cults and mystical movements flourished as a result of temple centered Hinduism.
India had a great age of religious art and architecture.
Many temples were built with elaborate bas-relief.
There was a new line of Turkish rulers in Afghanistan in the 12th century.
Muhammad extended his control through north India.
Qutb-ud-din, the former slave who was one of his generals, took over and established a government at Delhi, which was separate from the govern ment in Afghanistan.
The sultanate of Delhi lasted for three centuries.
The Delhi sultanate was able to hold off the Mongols.
Although the Turks were no longer nomadic, they still retained their martial arts and knowledge of warfare.
The shah of Khurasan was captured in 1221 by the troops of Chinggis Khan.
The sultan kept out of the way when Chinggis Khan left some troops in the area.
The sultan of the time was able to defeat the two hundred thousand men that the khan launched into India in 1299.
It is possible to calculate solar and lunar eclipses.
Thirty-three years later, he was still writing about the subject, providing simpler ways to solve problems encountered before.
Some of his books were translated into other Indian languages, even though they were written in Sanskrit, a literary language.
His Brahmin family was an astronomer at the Ujjain matical astronomy.
The ruler gave the names of Bhaskara's ancestors who wrote a popular book on astrology in the text he had inscribed at the observatory.
A person wrote that they had continued in their profession.
They must travel 22/7 yojanas farther than the day before if they deal with solutions to simple and quadratic equations.
The use of zero and negative numbers is used by Indian mathematicians in x 8 x 2 x 2), which is 888-282-0465 888-282-0465 888-282-0465 888-282-0465.
These 14 drammas, 9 panas, 1 kakini, and 62/3 cowry shells were developed by Bhaskara.