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2.4 Acids and Bases
Analyze how buffers prevent large pH changes.
acidic solutions include lemon juice, coffee, and tomatoes.
Acids release hydrogen ion (H+) in water.
The acidity of a substance depends on how much water it has in it.
Adding hydrochloric acid to a beaker of water will increase the number of hydrogen ion.
Milk of magnesia and ammonia are familiar to most people.
The number of hydrogen ion decreases if the water is added with sodium hydroxide.
The is used to indicate the basicity of a solution.
The hydrogen ion and hydroxide ion concentrations are equal in a neutral state.
The hydrogen ion concentration is greater than the hydroxide concentration in acidic solutions.
The [OH-] is greater than the [H+].
Each unit is 10 times more acidic than the previous unit as we move down the scale.
Each unit is 10 times more basic as we move up the scale.
The pH 5 is 100 times more acidic than the other two.
0 is the most acidic and 14 is the most basic on the pH scale.
A basic pH has more OH- than H+.
The use of numbers was eliminated with the creation of the pH scale.
Consider the following question to understand the relationship between hydrogen ion concentration and pH.
A number with a smaller negative is indicative of a bigger quantity of hydrogen ion.
The solution is acidic.
The impact of acid deposition on the environment is described in the Biological Systems feature.
There are health consequences if the pH is maintained in a narrow range.
The carbon dioxide in the air and water combine to give a weak solution of carbonic acid, which is why the rain has a pH of about 5.6.
Acid deposition includes rain or snow that has a pH of less than 5, as well as dry acidic particles that fall to Earth from the atmosphere.
When fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and gasoline are burned, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides combine with water to produce sulfuric and nitric acids.
The pollutants are found in the east because of wind patterns.
The tall smokestacks cause them to be carried hundreds of miles away.
Acid rain can affect biological systems.
In areas where the soil is thin and lacks limestone as a buffer, aluminum may come from the soil.
Toxic mercury may be converted into toxic methyl mercury by acid rain.
There are serious sensory and muscular health problems that can be caused by the build up of mercury in body tissues over time.
Hundreds of lakes in Canada and New England have been devoid of fish due to acid rain.
Plants that have been damaged by acid rain are no longer able to use photosynthesis.
Plants are vulnerable to diseases and pests when they are stressed.
Acid rain affects forests on mountaintops more than those at lower levels.
Toxic chemicals such as aluminum can damage forests.
These kill soil fungi that help the roots get the vitamins they need.
Millions of acres of highelevation forests have been destroyed in New England.
Acid deposition and destruction of the environment are caused by SO2 and NOx.
Over the past several decades, clean air legislation and stricter emission standards have resulted in decreases in SO2 and NOx, chemicals that lead to acid rain.
Humans may be affected by acid rain.
Respiratory illnesses, such as asthma, are more likely to be caused by inhaling dry sulfate and nitrate particles.
Limestone and marble buildings break down when exposed to acid rain.
The paint on cars is degraded.
If we reduce chemicals that contribute to acid rain, the damage to natural systems and human structures will decrease.
A combination of chemicals keeps the pH within normal limits.
There is an added incentive for us to buy commercial products.
In living organisms, the pH of body fluids has to be maintained within a narrow range.
acidosis results if the blood pH drops to about 7.
Alkalosis results if the blood pH goes up to 7.8.
The body has mechanisms to prevent pH changes.
One of the important mechanisms is the buffer.
Buffers help keep the pH within normal limits because they are chemicals or combinations of chemicals that take up excess hydrogen ion.
There is a combination of carbonic acid and bicarbonate in the blood.
Any change in blood pH is prevented by these reactions.
Determine if a pH of 2.0 is more acidic than a pH of 4.0.
Discuss the role of buffers in living organisms.
Carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, and sulfur are some of the elements found in living organisms.
Radioactive isotopes can be used in biological experiments and medical procedures.
The electron shells are at a distance from the nucleus.
When there are two electrons in the first shell, it's complete.
Every shell beyond the first is stable when eight electrons are present.
The octet rule states that most atoms do not have filled outer shells.
There are three types of bonds.
Water is essential for life.
The hydrogen bonds between water molecule are formed by the polarity of the water molecule.
Cells have the structure and function of hydrogen bonds.
Water's unique properties allow life to exist and carry on cellular activities.
There is a high heat capacity in water.
The water has a high temperature.
A large amount of heat is needed to cause liquid water to change to gas.
Water is a liquid.
Water is strong.
Liquid water is denser than frozen water.
Ice floats on liquid water.
Solutions with equal numbers of H+ and OH are neutral.
Cells can be sensitive to pH changes.
Pick the best answer for the question.
There is a number of protons.
An atom with two electrons in the valence shell is most likely a share.
A negatively charged ion is formed when an atom gains electrons.
A/an a. ionic bond has an equal sharing of electrons.
The temperature inside and outside the cell can be stable with water.
Water is cohesive.
Match the statements with the property of water in the key.
The water flows because it is cohesive.
The water holds the heat.
Water and cells make up the majority of our blood.
Our blood is acidic.
A normal body temperature is maintained by us.
The buffer system in the body is called H2CO3/NaHCO3.
The pH will go up.
The pH will go down.
The solution is 100 times more acidic.
The solution is 100 times simpler.
Natural phenomena need an explanation.
Section 2.3 explains why the oceans don't freeze.
On a hot summer day, you decide to dive into a swimming pool.
The surface of the water is smooth before you dive.
Your skin temperature feels cooler after the dive because some water droplets are clinging to your skin.
An over-the-counter remedy for heartburn is antacids.
One electron and one protons are contained in a hydrogen atom.
A hydrogen ion has a single protons.
A mole is defined as 6.02 x 1023 of any atom, molecule, or ion.
6.02 x 1023 atoms of 12C have a mass of 12 g.
The negative log of the hydrogen ion concentration is called 3pH.
The power to which 10 must be raised is called a log.
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