The physical structures and sensory and percep Classical Conditioning Processes are examined in chapter 2.
Phobias air are very brief in duration and do not enter consciousness.
Our awareness is critical when it comes to interacting with Classical Conditioning after our environment.
People in the surrounding apartments have aversions to taste-aversion.
Learning and Preparedness can be found in a farmer's corncrib, so it's helpful for the rat to remember how to return to this food source in the future.
We discuss several basic forms of learning in this chapter.
This definition distinguishes learned behaviors from those that occur automatically in response to external events.
It is unlikely that you were able to walk when you were 6 months old.
The ability to walk emerged around your first birthday.
The answer is no.
You didn't have the strength to lift a 5-pound weight when you were 2 years old.
Lifting 5 pounds was easy when you were 10.
You didn't have to learn anything to be able to pick up the weight.
The change in Linda's driving behavior isn't an automatic response, it's a relatively permanent change like a cold wind or blinking.
The answer is no.
The dogs salivated before food was put in their mouths.
They salivated at the sight of the food, the sound of the researcher's footsteps, and the sight of the dish.
He set out to get rid of the secretions, but soon realized that he was on to something much bigger.
The dogs formed associations with a variety of stimuli, including the sight of the food, the food itself, and footsteps, and the meat powder, which brought forth the salivation he had observed.
The nobel Prize was awarded to ivan Pavlov in 1904 for his research on digestion.
The dogs began drooling to stimuli other than food.
The setting in which he could investigate the components of classical conditioning was provided by the precision of the laboratory.
The dogs salivate to stimuli such as the experimenter's footsteps.
Many examples of classi cal conditioning can be found in human behaviors.
Many people associate Mcdonald's golden arches with fast food because of the smell and taste of a juicy burger.
The presentation of a light, a tone, or a word is not currently associated with the response to be established at the start of conditioning.
You will find out with each other.
The NS becomes aCS because it's frequently used with a UCS.
The UCS produces the same neutral stimuli that get reaction.
Food in your mouth makes you salivate, touching a hot stove makes you jerk your hand away, and a loud noise makes you blink.
If you have a feeling that we have already discussed this type of re reaction, you are correct.
These reflexes are similar to those described in Chapter 2.
You don't learn response elicited by a conditioned jerk when you touch a hot stove; you pull it away automatically.
There is a built-in response that may protect you from further harm.
A physician can use a small rubber hammer to hit an area just below your knee during a physical examination.
In his studies, Pavlov used food as the UCS.
He put a small amount of meat powder into a hungry dog's mouth.
The meat powder made the dog salivate.
The dog salivated when the sound of the clock was presented.
If you can apply the terminology just described to the demonstration, consider what happened naturally and what was learned.
The UCS is the lemonade powder and it causes the UCR to pucker and salivate.
The CR of puckering and salivating can be experienced after it is coupled with lemonade powder several times.
In another example, let's put these elements together.
If your brother is just tall enough, he can reach the skillet on the stove.
You try to comfort him because of his pain.
You put the incident out of your mind when his tears stop.
The same skillet is on the stove again three days later.
Your brother cries when he sees the skillet in the kitchen.
The skillet has taken on a new meaning for him, demonstrating that some stimuli are so memorable that they produce learning without the need for repeated pairs.
In classical conditioning terms, the skillet initially was an ss, but after conditioning it became the ss.
The UCS always elicits pain and an avoidance response.
The pain and jerking the hand away were responses.
The classical conditioning sequence involves first presenting the NS and then the UCS.
The UCS is on its way if the two events are associated.
The CR is very similar to the UCR after a conditioning experience of this type.
The sight of the skillet reminds your brother of the pain he experienced.
Pain, electric shock, or hitting your finger with a hammer are not harmful UCSs.
A variety of stimuli can serve as a UCS; their associated responses are reflexes that are crucial for biological functioning, sur vival, and reproduction.
When you are hungry, a bite of your favorite food will cause you to salivate.
The UCS is food in your mouth.
Positive feelings when you receive a kiss or hug are also examples of a UCS.
There are many different types of bodily UCSs.
Think about the reflexes that you have such as eye blinking to dirt in your eye, pulling your hand away from a hot dish, and sweating in hot temperatures.
The nS does not elicit a specific response.
A UCr is automatically elicited by the UCS.
UCR is similar to UCS in that it is unconditioned by itself.
The same way that Pavlov's dogs were conditioned, people become classically conditioned.
The sights and sounds that accompany meals can become CSs.
The unique decor of a restaurant, an advertisement, or a menu can act as a CS.
There are many examples of classical conditioning of CRs.
Classical conditioning can be demonstrated in class with ease.
This demonstration is based on the idea that most people will flinch when someone sticks a balloon with a pin.
Classical conditioning can be observed at the same time with the following procedure.
You will need 20 balloons and a needle.
A foot-long needle is the best for dramatic effect.
A friend can pop five or six of them with a needle.
Next, have your friends watch you pop more balloons.
Once you have popped several of them, you can stick the needle into a less tense area of the balloon.
The rubber is thick and the balloon does not pop when it is stuck with the needle.
Your friends are going to flinch.
If you use a foot-long needle, you can make the effect even more dramatic by passing the needle completely through the balloon.
Dr. edie McClellan is going to demonstrate that a needle can be put through a balloon.
Many students flinch when the needle approaches the balloon because they have heard the noise of a pin being pushed into a balloon before.
The needle can be passed through the thick part of the balloon without popping it.
The easiest way to start is with the UCS, then you have to decide what the UCR is, and finally determine what will happen in the presence of the UCS.
Think of a food smell that makes you remember a pleasant childhood memory--perhaps cookies baking or the cinnamon smell of hot apple pie.
The UCS is the food you enjoy.
Ivan Pavlov's research showed several important processes of classical conditioning.
The training stage in which a particular response is learned is called acquisition.
The acquisition of CRs is influenced by a number of factors.
The order in which the UCS are presented, the intensity of the UCS, and the num source are included.
We are taking a closer look at each factor.
The strength of conditioning is influenced by the sequence in which the UCS is presented.
The optimum sequence is for the CS to precede the UCS.
Before putting meat powder in the dogs' mouths, Pavlov sounded the tone.
The signal of what is about to happen after the UCS can't be served by the CS.
The tone must precede presentation of the meat powder in order to provide meaningful information to the organisms.
When Pavlov gave his dogs a small amount of meat powder, they salivated less than when he gave them larger amounts.
The stronger the CR becomes, the more times the UCS is presented together.
Chances are good that your brother's CR to the skillet will be stronger if he grabs the hot skillet more than once.
If you have eaten at an exceptional restaurant several times, your CRs will be stronger than if you only ate there once.
If we want to record how strong the CR is and how long we can present the CS alone before it disappears, we should present it without the UCS.
The number of times the CS is pre sented without the UCS is very important in eliminating the CR.
The number of drops of saliva produced gradually decreased each time the tone was sounded.
When it is cold, your brother's fear will decrease if he grabs the skillet several times.
The longer the extinction takes, the stronger the CR is.
The process of extinction is influenced by what takes place during acquisition.
The longer it takes to extinguish the CR, the stronger the UCS is.
Classical conditioning participants seem to forget about extinction.
Consider the dog again.
The dog has been presented with the bell several times.
The CR has decreased until it appears that the dog is not sali vating after the bell is rung.
We might conclude that the extinction process is over when the dog is returned to its cage.
The dog salivates again on the day after the CS is presented.
extinction trials reduce the reappearance of an extinguished tendency to respond, but that tendency is not eliminated in most cases.
The cr is weak at the beginning of the session end.
Spontaneous recovery can happen in real-life situations as well.
On the second day of the winter, you experienced a very bad fall.
You went back out on the slopes for the next two days after you were summoned, and you had a lot of courage and determination.
Thankfully, there were no more spills.
You return to the ski resort after a full year.
As you pull on your ski boots, you experience a degree of apprehension.
You thought the fear had dissipated by the time you were skiing last year, but it seems to have come back this year.
You and your brother are walking through the housewares section of Wal-mart when your brother starts crying and refuses to walk any further after grabbing the hot skillet.
He looks like his feet were set in concrete.
He is looking at a display of skillets.
The more those skillets look like the one at home, the greater his fear.
Classical conditioning can be applied to other stimuli that are similar to the original.
Although Pavlov's dogs were conditioned to salivate in response to a specific tone, they also salivated when a bad fall on a ski slope results in a classically conditioned fear.
When you hit the slopes again the following year, the extinction may be forgotten because of the fear response.
Tones that were different from the original were less likely to lead to salivation.
A person with a fear of snakes might react with fear when they see a piece of rope lying on the ground.
It's easy to see how generalization happens.
All flying insects, especially those that look like was.
Butterflies do not sting as much as hornets and bees, as we discover as children.
We fear the specific insects but not the others.
We learn to distinguish between those that accurately predict the occurrence of the UCS and those that don't.
Discrimination narrows your response to the right stimuli and no other.
Discrimination requires stimuli to be clearly distinguishable.
Imagine if you couldn't distinguish between insects that sting and those that don't, you'd be afraid to go outside.
Generalization widens or increases the range of stimuli that call forth a CR, while discrimination narrows or decreases the range of stimuli that call forth a CR.
The principle was investigated by Pavlov.
A group of dogs were trained to discriminate between a circle and an ellipse.
The ellipse was changed over a number of presentations until it was indistinguishable from the circle.
Before reading further, write down your answer.
The dogs were unable to discriminate between the two stimuli.
When they were able to discriminate between the two stimuli, they displayed other behaviors that did not occur.
They became agitated and tried to escape from their harnesses.
Outside the experimental room, these behaviors continued.
The analysis provides a clue as to the origin of albert, a part of one of the most well-known research efforts into abnormal behaviors in humans.
The findings show that apprehension can affect our behavior.
The primary business of psychology is to study observable behaviors such as jogging, according to behaviorists.
Little albert was afraid of a white rat.
The rat has no fear of Little albert because he has no fear of the white rat.
The rat is playing with a steel bar.
The loud noise causes a startle and fear response.
The loud noise for Little Albert is associated with the white rat.
The loud noise for the rat is associated with Little Albert.
A rabbit that is similar to the white rat is frightening in Little Albert.
Anything that has to do with thinking, feeling, or consciousness was not an appropriate subject of psychological study because they couldn't be observed directly.
The behaviorists wanted to discover which stimuli elicited which responses.
"Little Albert", an 11-month-old baby, was frightened to death by a white rat in the pursuit of this goal.
Albert allowed the rat to crawl on him at first.
While Little Albert was playing with the rat, Watson hit a steel rod with a hammer, making a loud noise.
Albert was startled.
Albert cried in fear when the loud noise was coupled with the rat.
Albert started crying at the sight of the rat, even when there was no noise, and he eventually came to fear any object that looked like a rat, such as a white rabbit.
Albert was afraid of rats and rat-like objects.
No one knew who Little Albert was until recently, when Dr. Hall Beck and some students went on a quest to find out.
Little Albert's real name was Douglas.
Douglas died when he was 6 years old.
The elements of Little Albert's fear are analyzed.
The loud noise came from hitting a steel bar with a hammer.
The state of being scared and startled was called the UCR.
For Albert, the rat was the same as the cat.
Both of them were afraid of an object that signaled a loud noise.
Before you read further, you should write down your responses and reasons.
The chological Association would probably say no to these questions.
If the irrational fear of an activity, object, and Rayner were to conduct their research with Little Albert in the 21st century, they or situation that is out of proportion would have difficulty meeting the ethical standards you read about in Chapter 1.
Classical con ditioning has been a focus of attention in our efforts to understand phobias since the 1920s, despite the questionable ethics exhibited in the Little Albert research.
Scott was locked in an abandoned refrigerator by his playmates when he was 3 years old.
He has avoided closed spaces ever since.
He is still afraid of closed spaces 25 years later.
He can't ride in an elevator and always takes the stairs in high-rise buildings.
Scott's fear of closed spaces such as elevators, compact cars, and small rooms might seem strange to you, if you weren't aware of his background.
Chances are good that you are afraid of some objects or situations that you don't fear, even if you don't fear closed spaces like Scott.
In the case of Scott's fear of closed spaces, many of his fears may have been classically conditioned.
Scott was locked in an abandoned refrig erator when he was a child, and now he fears anything that resembles a closed space.
Some people with phobias can't remember a specific event that is the cause.
Many phobias exert their influence in a strange and potentially detrimental way.
A person's daily activities can be disrupted by phobias.
Systematic desensitization involves conditioning a desired response, relax ation, to the phobic stimuli; it has been quite successful in treating a range of phobias.
Scott is conditioned to relax in enclosed spaces using this procedure.
Some accidental drug overdoses might be explained by classical conditioning.
The body tries to reduce the effects of a drug on it's body.
When a person takes a drink of alcohol, their body temperature will rise slightly in an attempt to counteract the effects of alcohol.
The more times an individual takes a drug, the more likely it is that the body will prepare for the introduction of the drug.
It is necessary for the person to take more of the drug to get the desired effect because of this process.
This same process can lead to accidental drug overdoses if the individual uses the drug in a different way than usual.
The following example can be used.
Charles has been using heroin for the past two years.
He usually goes to his bedroom, removes his kit from his nightstand, prepares the drug, and injects it between his big and "pointer" toe on his left foot.
He has found over the past two years that it takes more and more of the drug to get the de sired effect.
The location of the injection has become a CS.
Charles requires more of the drug to have an effect because his body has begun to make internal preparations when he steps into his bedroom.
Due to his drug addiction, Charles lost his apartment and had to move back in with his parents.
He decided to inject himself on the first night in his old bedroom.
He takes his usual dose of heroin, but ends up in the emergency room with an overdose.
He didn't take any more of the drug than he normally would, and he wasn't using a different source.
Charles was more vulnerable to an ac cidental overdose because his body did not make the internal preparations that it normally does.
Stories like the hypothetical Charles are not unusual.
More than half of patients admitted for heroin overdose had taken the drug in a different setting than they normally would, according to research.
None of the heroin addicts admitted to the hospital for other reasons had taken the drug outside of their usual place.
Drug tolerance and the experience of withdrawal symptoms can be explained by the same pro cess.
When presented with stimuli that had been associated with previous drug use, an addicted person will experience more severe withdrawal symptoms.
In order to control withdrawal symptoms, a component of their treatment may be to avoid certain places and people.
Although the topic of attitudes is of special interest to social psychologists, it is also of interest to psy chologists who focus on learning.
Learning theorists believe attitudes are developed through classical conditioning.
An attitude is likely to form if a UCS that is either positive or negative is frequently used with a potential attitude object such as a particular make of car.
The basis of attitude formation can occur with regard to racial prejudice, brand preferences, and a wide range of objects and situations.
In order to expand our knowledge of attitude formation, undergraduates took part in research on video surveillance and vigilance.
The students were told that there would be hundreds of images on the computer screen.
The images are wielding a knife.
The cartoons were the target images.
The research of cartoon characters with either ers found that participants reported positive evaluations of the images with positive words or images or negative words or images and negative evaluations of the images with negative words or images.
They had been associated with positive words.
Advertising can use classical conditioning to influence attitudes, but only if we are aware of the classical conditioning process.
You are exposed to the same real-life "ex of products and services every day.
Sometimes the associations don't make sense, but they can still be effective.
The conception of classical conditioning has changed over time.
We now know that conditioning isn't an automatic process.
Today, psychologists place more importance on what the CS says to the participant.
One principle that has emerged from this continued research is that the better the prediction of the UCS, the stronger the conditioning will be (Bolles, 1979; Rescorla, 1968).
The impor tance of predictability was encountered when we discussed the sequence of the presentation.
A study of classical conditioning in rats shows this point.
This relation is not surprising.
The goal of the acquisition or training process is to create an association between the CS and UCS.
A person predicts a UCS.
The sound of the clock predicted the delivery of meat powder.
The harder it will be to extinguish the CR, the more reliable the CS is.
Even if they are predictable, CSs do not automatically become associated with UCSs.
If classical conditioning only involves the pair of a UCS and a CS, the time at which the pair occurs should not make a difference.
The timing of the match does matter.
Consider the following research.
A group of rats were conditioned by presenting a tone and then being shocked with an electric shock.
A second light was presented before the shock after a response to the tone was conditioned.
A second group of animals only received light and shock.
The researcher used a light to test the strength of conditioning.