She had an image of the Buddha made, as well as a hall to house it, in establishing the Blessings Convent.
The processional image of the bodhisattva was made on the fifteenth day of the third month.
Again, fed by oil.
Even though she was 437, she commissioned a gold that was engulfed by flames up to her forehead, and her eyes and ears were nearly in the fourth month and tenth day of consumed, her chanting of the scrip that same year.
Monastics and forth from the mark between the householders sighed in wonder, the eyebrows of the image and the upright were alike the entire convent.
The news startled me.
Everyone came to pay honor and enlightenment when the country heard about it.
The court looked at the brilliance.
The style poetic verse was used to praise her.
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She had 1 when she was a child.
They didn't consider being associated with others to be admirable or inspiring.
She followed the course along the boundary.
Buddhism had a huge impact on the visual arts in China.
Before Buddhism, the Chinese didn't put up statues of gods in temples, but now they have.
In China, caves were carved into rock faces to make temples.
Buddhist teachings did not win over everyone.
The Sui Dynasty conquered its rivals to reunify China in 581.
Political reform, the construction of roads and canals, and the establishment of merit-based exams for the appointment of officials were some of the legacies left by the dynasty.
The Tang Dynasty would last for centuries and build upon the Sui's accomplishments to create an era of cultural creativity and political power.
The Sui Dynasty brought an end to the long period of division in China.
The man who founded the Sui Dynasty and oversaw the reunification of China was from a Chinese family that had an affair with a non- Chinese elite of the north.
In addition to conquering the south, the Sui also took control of northern Vietnam and fought the Turks in Korea.
In 605 c.e., the Sui strengthened central control of the government by curtailing the power of local officials to appoint their own subordinates.
The canal made it possible for the shipping of grain from the prosperous Yangzi Valley to the centers of political and military power in north China.
The Sui Dynasty lasted for only two reigns.
The emperors of the Sui had ambitious projects that led to exhaustion and unrest, and the founder of the Sui, Li Yuan, a Chinese from the same north west aristocracy, seized the throne.
The Tang dynasty was one of the high points of Chinese civilization.
The Chinese were able to learn from the outside world because of the strength of their position.
The first two Tang rulers were able mon archs.
Adding auxiliary troops composed of Turks, Tanguts, Khitans, and other non-Chinese led by their own commanders, they went into Korea, Vietnam, and Central Asia.
Over the course of Chinese history, notions of what makes women against the Turks have changed.
The Tang tombs like this one show that ful-figured women with plump faces were admired in the mid- and late Tang.
Tang accomplishments were far better than the court.
The adminstration of the empire was divided into departments.
They used the Sui precedent of using written exams to select officials.
Can didates had to master the Confucian classics and the rules of poetry, and they had to be able to analyze practical issues.
The sons of officials and other young men were trained in government schools.
The mid-Tang Dynasty saw two women rise to positions of great political power.
The weak and sickly Emperor Gaozong had a consort.
She took charge after Gaozong had a stroke.
She continued to rule after Gaozong's death and dealt harshly with all opponents.
She was the first woman to claim the title of emperor in Chinese history.
Although despised by Chinese historians as an evil person, the leader of the country was an effective one.
She was forced out by the court when she was over eighty years old.
Leading poets, painters, and calligraphers were patronized by the emperor in his early years.
He didn't want to pay attention to the details of government after he became enamored with his consort.
Friends and relatives of the emperor were placed in important positions in the government.
One of her favorites was the general An Lushan, who rebelled in 755 after a fight with his brother over control of the government.
The troops that accompanied him forced him to leave the capital and have a man executed.
The Tang Dy nasty was devastated by the rebellion of An Lushan.
The peace was restored by calling on the Uighurs, who took the capi tal from the rebels.
The central government had to keep meeting the demands of the Uighurs after the rebellion was suppressed.
Many military gover nors came to treat their provinces as hereditary kingdoms.
The reunification of north and south resulted in cultural flowering.
Chang'an and its suburbs grew to more than 2 million people, making it the largest city in the world at the time.
The cities were laid out in grids and had walls made of blocks.
The gates of the city were locked at night.
The presence of envoys, merchants, and pilgrims from other states stimulated the knowledge of the outside world in these cosmopolitan cities.
Because of the pres ence of foreign merchants, many religions were practiced, but none of them spread into the Chinese population the way Buddhism had a few centuries earlier.
Foreign fashions in hair and clothing were often copied, and foreign amusements such as the Persian game of polo were found among the wel -to-do.
The introduction of new musical instruments and tunes from India, Iran, and Central Asia brought about a major transformation in Chi nese music.
The great age of Chinese poetry was during the Tang Dynasty.
In order to get into the civil service, educated men had to be able to compose poetry at social gatherings.
The joys of nature, the pain of leaving, and the pleasures of wine and friendship were all poetic topics.
Buddhism penetrated Chinese daily life.
Buddhist festivals became one of the most popular holidays due to the stories of Buddhist origin.
Buddhist monasteries were an important part of everyday life.
They ran schools.
They provided lodging for travelers in remote areas.
Merchantsentrusting their money and wares to monasteries for safekeeping transformed the monasteries into banks and warehouses.
monasteries were among the largest landlords due to the wealthy donating money or land to support temples and monas teries.
Pure Land and Chan were two schools that thrived.
The Zen school of Buddhism is known in Japan as a school of mind-to-mind transmission.
The authority of the sutras was jected by the "northern" Chan tradition.
The "southern" tradition held that enlightenment could be achieved suddenly through insight into mind-to-mind transmission of one's own true nature, even without lengthy meditation.
There were concerns about Buddhism's foreign origins, as well as concerns about the fiscal impact of removing so much land from the tax rolls.
China's international position deteriorated.
More than 260,000 Buddhist monks and nuns were forced to return to secular life after more than 4,600 monasteries and 40,000 temples and shrines were destroyed in the persecution of 845.
The monastic establishment never recovered after the ban was lifted.
The immediate neighbors of China began forming states of their own.
China was surrounded by independent states in Korea, Manchuria, Tibet, and the area that is now Yunnan province, Vietnam, and Japan.
China was the dominant force in both political and cultural terms until the 19th century.
Each of the states had a strong sense of their own identity.
Chinese sources have the earliest information about each of these countries.
Even though Han armies brought Chinese culture to Korea and Vietnam, it was voluntary as the elite, merchants, and craftsmen adopted the techniques, ideas, and practices they found appealing.
Much of the process of removing elements of Chinese culture was done via Korea.
The fine arts in Korea, Japan, and Vietnam were strongly influenced by Chinese models.
Tibet was part of the Indian sphere of influence and followed a different path than the Chinese.
It never adopted Chinese characters as its written language, nor was it influenced by Chinese ar tistic styles as other areas.
The form of Buddhism that became dominant in Tibet came from India.
Many Chi nese products and ideas became incorporated into everyday life when Chinese-style culture was first adopted by elites.
educated people throughout East Asia used the written Chinese language.
When they couldn't understand each other's languages, they could communicate in writing.
As Buddhist sutras were translated into Chinese, the Chinese classics, histories, and poetry were included in the books that educated people read.
The appeal of Buddhism through Chinese translation was a power ful force that promoted cultural borrowing.
Vietnam is a part of Southeast Asia, but it is also a part of China, and its climate is similar to that of southernmost China, with abundant rain and rivers.
The Yue, a people of south China, migrated farther south as the Chinese state expanded.
The people of the Red River Valley achieved Bronze Age civilization by the first century b.c.e.
The king was the most powerful chief because he was a civil, religious, and military leader.
This kingdom was ruled by Trieu Da from his capital near the present site.
The majority of its population was from the Viet people.
Trieu Da became the ruler of a vast state that extended as far south as modern-day Da Nang after adopting the customs of the Viet.
After almost a hundred years of diplomatic and military battles between the Han Dy nasty and Trieu Da and his successors, the war ended in 112 b.c.e.
The local nobility were replaced by Chinese administrators.
Chinese characters were used as the written form for the Vietnamese spoken language after the introduction of the Chinese language as the medium of official and literary expression.
To facilitate communication within the region, the Chinese built roads, waterways, and harbors.
The power of Chinese art, architecture, and music was felt in Vietnam.
Chinese innovations that were beneficial to the Vietnamese were readily integrated into the indigenous culture, but the local elite were not reconciled to Chinese political domination.
In 39 c.e., the Trung sisters led an uprising against foreign rule.
They declared themselves queens of the inde pendent Vietnamese kingdom after defeating Chinese strongholds.
The Han emperor sent an army to reestablish Chinese rule.
The local elite became cultural y dual, serving as brokers between the Chinese governors and the native people.
South from Manchuria and Siberia lies the mountainous peninsula of Korea.
It is about 120 miles from Japan at its tip.
The Korean people share a common ethnic ori gin with other peoples of North Asia, including those of Manchuria, Siberia, and Japan.
Bronze and iron technology were adopted by Korea in the first mil ennium b.c.e.
During the War ring States Period, the state ofYan extended into part of Korea.
In what is now northwest Korea and southern Manchuria, a state cal ed Choson was set up by a rebel against the Han Dynasty.
Chinese officials were dispatched to govern the four prefectures.
The impact of the Chinese prefectures in Korea was similar to the impact of the Roman colonies in Britain.
After the fall of the dynasty, the prefectures survived for nearly a century.
The Chinese did not control the entire Korean peninsula.
The native Korean kingdom of KoguryoV was founded in the first century BC.
The kingdoms of Paekche and Sil a emerged farther south on the peninsula in the third and fourth centuries c.e., leading to the Three Kingdoms Period.
Chinese was the language of government and learning in the Korean kingdoms.
The power of the three kingdoms was curbed by the existence of very strong hereditary elites.
In 372, Buddhism was officially introduced in KoguryoV from China.
Korea was connected to societies across Asia by Buddhism.
Buddhist monks traveled between China and Korea.
One person traveled to India and back and others went to Japan to help spread Buddhism there.
When China reunified in 589, the Sui Dynasty tried to establish control of at least a part of Korea, but the Korean kingdoms fought back.
The Tang government tried to fight the others with one state.
Paekche and KoguryoV were destroyed by Tang.
Silla was able to repel Tang's efforts to make Korea a colony but agreed to be a vassal state.
Silla marked the first political unification of Korea.
Silla began a policy of wholesale borrowing of Chinese culture and institutions.
Large numbers of students studied in China and annual embassies were sent to Chang'an.
modi fications were made to accommodate Korea's more aristocratic social structure, but the Sil a government was modeled on the Tang.
The four mountainous islands off the coast of Korea are the heart of Japan.
The Inland Sea, like the Aegean in Greece, was the easiest way to communicate in the early days.
Kyushu, Shikoku, and Honshu were the political and cul tural center of early Japan.
The Korea Strait and the Sea of Japan were blessed by geography.
The Japanese were free to develop their way of life for a long time.
Japan's early development was closely tied to that of the mainland.
Physical anthropologists have discerned several waves of immigrants into Japan.
New arrivals from northeast Asia brought agriculture and a dis tinct culture.
During the Han Dynasty objects of Chinese and Korean manufacture found their way into Japan, an indication that people were traveling back and forth.
The land called Wa is made up of mountainous islands.
There were many communities, markets, granaries, tax collection, and class distinctions.
The language that evolved into Japa nese was brought about by new waves of grants from Korea.
Bronze swords, crossbows, iron plows, and the Chinese written language were also brought.
A social order similar to Korea's emerged, dominated by a warrior aristocracy.
Each clan had a chief priest who marshaled clansmen for battle.
The clans fought with each other and their numbers were reduced through conquest.
The leader of the clan that claimed descent from the sun-goddess, located in the Yamato plain around Osaka, ascended to the position of Great King by the fifth century.
The rulers of Yamato used their religion to control the gods of their rivals, just as Hammurabi used Marduk in Baby lonia.
The sun-goddess near the seacoast had a shrine where she could catch the first rays of the sun.
As long as other gods were seen as inferior to the sun-goddess, they were supported.
Buddhism was officially introduced in 538 c.e.
Korea and Japan have the same latitude, but Korea's climate is more continental, with the Shinto reverence for the spirits of ancestors.
Kyushu is one of Japan's four islands.
The Japanese Buddhist temples had several buildings within a walled compound.
The oldest wooden structures in the world and some of the best early Buddhist sculpture in Japan can be found in the buildings of the Ho-ryu-ji Temple.
The main buildings here are depicted as the pagoda, the main hal, and the lecture hall, with the temple's principal images.
The pagoda could be seen from a distance, like the steeples of cathedrals in Europe.
The reform of the state was undertaken by Prince Shotoku to strengthen the rule of Yamato.
He told officials to put their duty to the ruler above their families.
He instituted a ladder of official ranks similar to China's, monied the nobility, and urged adherence to Buddhist precepts.
The Horyuji Temple was built by Prince Shotoku near his seat of government.
He sent four missions to China during the Sui Dynasty.
Nara, which was modeled on the Tang capital of Chang'an, gave its name to an modeled on the Tang capital of era that lasted until 794 and was characterized by the avid importation of Chinese Chang'an.
Many trips were made to China to acquire sources and study at Chinese monasteries as Buddhism developed a stronghold in Japan.
Chinese and Korean craftsmen were brought back to Japan to help with the decoration of Buddhist temples.
Many of the musical instruments and tunes were originally from Central Asia.
Seven thousand men worked in the government.
Increased contact with the mainland resulted in unwanted effects.
Compared to China and Korea, Japan was relatively isolated from many deadly diseases, so when diseases arrived with travelers, people did not have immunity.
The population is thought to have been reduced by 30 percent because of the great smallpox epidemic.
The Buddhist monasteries that ringed Nara were both religious centers and wealthy land lords, and the monks were active in the political life of the capital.
The policy of the Tang Dynasty in China was to establish a Buddhist temple with twenty monks and ten nuns to chant sutras and perform other ceremonies on behalf of the emperor and the state.
The years between the unification of China and East Asia were transformed.
The Tang Dynasty proved that a centralized, bureaucratic monarchy could bring peace and prosperity to populations of 50 million or more.
New ways of thinking about life and death and new ways of pursuing spiritual goals were brought about by Buddhism.
In the same centuries that Buddhism was adapting to and simultaneously transforming the culture of much of eastern Eurasia, similar processes were at work in western Eurasia, where Christianity continued to spread, and in India, where Brahmanism evolved into Hinduism.
Increased contact between different cultures was one of the reasons for the spread of these religions.
In Africa, contact between cultures was more extensive, but in other parts of the world, religious beliefs were more local.
The collapse of the Han Dynasty was similar to the collapse of the Roman Empire in the west, but in Europe the empire was never put back together like it was in China.
The rise of Christianity and Islam and the movement of peoples throughout Europe and Asia are chronicled in the next two chapters.
We will look at the empires in Africa and the Americas before we return to the story of East Asia after 800.
You can do these exercises online.
There are some basic terms about this period.
A more advanced understanding of the chapter material is required for the exercise below.
You can compare and contrast the Han and Roman Empires by filling in the chart below with descriptions of the society, economy, and government.
Now that you've reviewed key elements of the chapter, try to see the bigger picture.
In your answers, use specific examples from the chapter.
What role did Buddhism play in Korea, Vietnam, and Japan?
Imagine that you have to explain Chapter 7 to someone who hasn't read it.