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33.2 Animal Primary Tissues
There are four primary types of the tissues of multicellular, complex animals.
Cells carrying out related functions are among the groups of similar cells in tissues.
These tissues combine to form organs that have specific functions within the body.
The circulatory system, which consists of the heart and blood vessels, is an example of an organ system.
The organisms come together.
The shapes of the cells and the number of layers of cells are what determines the types of epithelia.
The different types of tissues are summarized in the table.
The cells fit together to form a covering or lining.
The areas of gas exchange in the lungs and the exchange of nutrients and waste at blood capillaries can be stimulated by the cells being arranged in a single layer.
The cells have an irregular shape and a small nucleus.
These cells can be divided into layers.
Figure 33.7a shows a layer of cells with their cells joined together.
There is protection needed on the body from outside damage and it is shown in image b.
The skin and tissues lining the mouth and vagina are where this occurs.
They are found in a single layer and represent a simple epithelia in glandular tissues throughout the body.
They are found in the walls of tubules.
The cells line the tubules in the kidneys.
The cells absorb the material from the GI tract and prepare it for entry into the body.
The cells absorb material from the GI tract.
The cells in the respiratory tract appear to be divided.
The cells are attached to the base of the tissue and therefore are simple tissues.
The apical, or free, surface of the cells is covered by this cellular covering.
The mucus and trapped particles that are in the respiratory tract can be protected from invaders by the cilia.
Some tissues have goblet cells in them.
In the case of the trachea, goblet cells contain mucus that traps irritants and keeps them out of the lungs.
The arrangement of the nuclei at different levels makes it appear that there is more than one layer.
mucus is produced in the respiratory tract by goblet cells.
As the bladder fills, the epithelial layer expands to hold the urine.
The lining becomes thinner as the bladder expands.
The thickness of the urinary bladder varies depending on how full it is.
There are cells involved in the removal of blood from the body.
The ground substance is usually made of an organic substance and a mineral or water.
The fibroblast is the main cell.
The fibers found in the tissues are made by this cell.
Fibroblasts are motile and can carry out a variety of activities.
Some of the tissues can be found with macrophages, lymphocytes, and leukocytes.
Some tissues have cells that aren't found in others.
The less dense the matrix, the higher the concentration of cells or fibers.
The organic portion of the tissues are either elastic or reticular.
The tissue can be torn or separated from the surrounding tissues ifCollagen fibers are not strong.
The elastic fiber can stretch to one and one half of its length and return to its original size and shape.
Flexibility to the tissues is provided by elastic fibers.
The third type of fiber found in tissues is reticular.
The network of fibers that make up this fiber are made up of thin strands of collagen.
The various types of tissues, the types of cells and fibers they are made of, and sample locations of the tissues are summarized in Table 33.3.
elastic fibers are thin and stain dark blue to black, while the linage fibers are wide and stain a light pink.
The matrix fills the space between the formed elements of the tissue.
The loose consistency of the tissue is similar to a cotton ball that has been pulled apart.
Every blood vessel has loose tissue around it to keep it in place.
Most body organs have tissue around them.
The areolar tissue is tough and flexible.
The loose tissue is made of elastic fibers.
fibroblasts make the fibers and other components of the matrix.
The strands are lined up in parallel with the fibers.
Irregularly arranged tissues are found in areas of the body where stress occurs from all directions.
There are strands of collagen fibers lined up in parallel.
The lacunae are scattered throughout the tissue and the matrix is scrubbed with histological stains.
The skeletons of sharks and humans are cartilaginous.
The outer portion of the human nose has a remnant of this cartilage.
The ends of long bones are home to hyaline cartilage, which reduces friction and protects the bones.
Hyaline is made of a matrix with cells embedded in it.
The matrix is called lacunae.
It has a lot of elastic fibers.
Cartilage is found in the ears of most animals.
The tissue has a large amount of fibers.
The intervertebral discs in animals are called Fibrocartilage.
As a result of age or trauma, hyaline is damaged in joints such as the knee and shoulder.
There is a large amount of two different types of matrix material in the bone.
The matrix material found in other tissues is similar to the organic matrix.
The strength and flexibility of the tissue is given by this.
The tissue breaks if there is not adequate organic material in the matrix.
There are three types of cells in the bone.
The bone is made for growth and remodeling.
After the matrix surrounds them, bone material is deposited into them and they live, but in a reduced metabolism as osteocytes.
There are cells in the bone.
osteoclasts provide access to calcium stored in tissues and are active in breaking down bone for bone remodeling.
The surface of the tissue has osteclasts.
There are two types of bone: compact and spongy.
The diaphysis of a long bone and the surface of the flat bones are the places where the bone isCompact bone is found in the shaft of a long bone and the surface of the flat bones.
There is a blood vessel and a nerve in the center of the Haversian canal.
The bone can become less resistant when the plates break.
The internal skeleton of animals is made of bone tissue.
Spongy bone is porous with trabeculae.
There are vessels in the central Haversian canal.
The lacunae are between the lamellae.
The lacunae are connected by canaliculi.
osteocytes are found in the lacunae.
A fat tissue that has a few fibers and does not have fibroblasts or a real matrix is considered a connective tissue.
The cells that collect and store fat in the form of triglycerides are called adipocytes.
Animals can be endothermic, and they function as insulation against damage to body organs, thanks to the adipose tissues.
As seen in the image, the cells are empty due to the removal of fat during the processing of the material for viewing, and the nucleus are small black dots at the edges of the cells.
Cells called adipocytes make up the adipose.
There are small nuclei at the cell edge.
The living cell types are red blood cells and white blood cells.
The fluid portion of blood is called the matrix.
Blood has a fluid matrix and no fibers.
Red blood cells are involved in the transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide.
The white blood cells are involved in the immune response.
The erythrocyte is the most abundant cell in blood.
The average number of red blood cells in primate is close to five million per microliter.
The size of erythrocytes varies between species.
The average diameter of a primate red blood cell is 7.5 ul, while a dog is close to 7.0 ul, and a cat is close to 5.9 ul.
The sheep's erythrocytes are only 4.5 ul.
When erythrocytes are released from the bone marrow, they lose their nucleus and mitochondria.
Red blood cells in fish, amphibian, and avian species maintain their nucleus and mitochondria throughout their lives.
Oxygen is carried and delivered to the tissues by an erythrocyte.
The peripheral blood contains Leukocytes, the main white blood cells.
The primate counts range from 4,800 to 10,800 cells per ul, dogs from 5,600 to 19,200 cells per ul, cats from 8,000 to 25,000 cells per ul, and cattle from 4,000 to 12,000 cells per ul.
The immune response to foreign material is what Lymphocytes function in.
Different types of lymphocytes control the production of those antibodies.
The monocyte is found in the peripheral blood.
Monocytes help clean up dead and damaged cells in the body, whether they are foreign or from the host animal.
The inflammatory response is aided by two additional leukocytes in the blood.
There is a small fragment of a cell in the bone marrow among the cells.
This is called a blood clot.
Platelets help stop bleeding through damaged blood vessels.
Blood has a number of functions, but primarily it transports material through the body to bring nutrition to cells and remove waste material from them.
Smooth, skeletal, and cardiac are the three types of muscle in an animal's body.
They are different by the presence of striations or bands, the number and location of nuclei, whether they are voluntarily or involuntarily controlled, and their location within the body.
The table summarizes the differences.
Smooth muscle does not have striations.
Smooth muscle tissue does not have the banded appearance of skeletal and cardiac muscle.
Smooth muscle is composed of the walls of blood vessels, the tubes of the reproductive systems, and the tubes of the digestive system.
Smooth muscle cells do not have striations.
Unlike the multinucleate skeletal cells, cardiac muscle cells have only one nucleus.
The intercalated discs in cardiac muscle tissue help in passing an impulse electrical from one cell to another.
Skeletal muscle has striations due to the arrangement of the contractile proteins actin and myosin.
The muscle cells are long and have many nuclei along the edge.
Skeletal muscles are under the control of the nervous system.
Cardiac muscle has a single nucleus and cross striations in its cells.
Cardiac muscle can be influenced by the nervous system to speed up or slow down.
An added feature to cardiac muscle cells is a line that extends along the end of the cell as it abuts the next cell in the row.
The intercalated disc helps in passing electrical impulse efficiently from one cell to the next and maintains a strong connection between neighboring cardiac cells.
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