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17 Reactions of Aromatic Compounds -- Part 12
The nitrogen atom is part of an aromatic ring.
Two, three, or four identical substituents are described in the structure of nicotine.
Smokers want "kick" that they crave.
The NH2 group is called reward system.
It is the same as any other substituent, with a number or symbol indicating its position on the ring or carbon chain.
Secondary and tertiary amines are named after the nitrogen atom and its alkyl groups.
The parent molecule is the largest or most complicated alkyl group.
Historical names include amines aromatic and Heterocyclic amines.
Nitrogen Heterocycles were first considered in Section 16-9.
The structures and names of some common ones are shown here.
The position number 1 is assigned to the Heteroatom.
The world used pesticides.
The pests are killed quickly.
Delayed mortality can be produced by giving the can.
The IUPAC name for amine is similar to the one for alcohols.
The root name is determined by the longest continuous chain of carbon atoms.
The nitrogen is used for each substituent.
ammonia has a slightly distorted shape.
One of the positions has a pair of nonbonding electrons.
The bulky methyl groups open the angle slightly.
The map shows how the nonbonding electrons give rise to a red region above the nitrogen atom.
A single amine with three different substituents is not superimposable on a mirror image, and appears to be a chiral center.
The small activation energy of about 25 kJ>mol shows that this is a stable transition state.
The nonbonding electron pair has the lowest priority in the naming of the enantiomers.
This group includes most of the amines.
Nitrogen is not the chirality center.
The 2-butyl group can be resolved into enantiomers.
Nitrogen inversion is not possible because there is no lone pair.
The salts can be resolved into enantiomers.
If the nitrogen atom is contained in a small ring, it won't be able to get the bond angles that facilitate inversion.
Chiral aziridines may be resolved into enantiomers.
The large dipole moment of the lone pair of electrons adds to the dipole moments of the C N and H N bonds.
H bonds allow them to form hydrogen bonds.
Weak hydrogen bonds are formed by amines and alcohols of similar weights.
The boiling points of primary and secondary amines are lower than those of alcohols.
tertiary amines have lower boiling points than primary and secondary amines.
Table 19-1 compares the boiling points of ether, alcohol, and amine.
Table 19-2 shows the melting points, boiling points, and water solubilities.
Amines have a characteristic odor of rotting fish.
In order to increase boiling points, rank each set of compounds.
An amine is a Lewis base because it has a single pair of nonbonding electrons.
An amine can act as a base if it accepts a protons from a acid.
Amine solutions are basic because they are strong bases.
An amine can give two different types of ion from water.
A basic solution of amines turn litmus paper blue.
W is a ion product for water.
This is true for any acid-base pair.
They remind us that a strongly basic amine has a weakly RNH2.
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