It wasn't clear about its commitment to consumers.
Russia had a lot of department stores for the rich.
There were three problems.
This was a poor society and leaders spent a lot of money on industrialization and agricultural reform.
The palatial pre-Communist era building on the right of this 1935 photograph of Red Square is the most famous link in the chain of Russian department stores known as GUM.
The desire to protect workers in the stores from what the communists perceived to be demeaned status of those who wait on customers arose.
Western sales clerks had to endure subservience and they sought to protect these workers.
The clerks took a surly attitude toward customers.
GUM stores became notorious for poor supplies and bad service as a result of all this.
Communism and consumerism were realities of the 20th century.
The two movements were not easy to combine.
After World War II, Russia's poor-quality goods and service became a symbol of communist inadequacy to many Western observers.
Comparisons with Western standards could be misleading because communist leaders had different goals.
Along with shoddy consumer goods came a huge advance in heavy industry and military production, as well as personal gains like extensive vacation opportunities for workers.
The two decades between the wars were the start of a different kind of industrial society.
The interwar period featured several important developments, including the rise of nationalist protest against European colonialism and the flawed peace settlement.
The 1920s featured many innovations in industrial societies, but also a combination of structural weakness and misleading il usion.
A wave of major revolutions, a global economic depression, and new authoritarian regimes spearheaded by German Nazism were the key dynamics of the interwar period.
The postwar challenges to western European society were immense.
There were 10 million new authoritarian movements in Europe that had died together with a lot of injuries.
World War I ends in November.
By the middle of the decade, there was a more optimistic attitude.
Despite the World War I victors having to pay compensation, a new, democratic republic in Germany made some positive strides.
The writers style was best represented by Spanish and composers.
Modern design in architecture and Picasso's work gained ground.
Albert objects were further worked on as geometrical shapes.
Einstein's theories of physics.
Dramatic effects and unprecedented heights are being used.
The new technology was combined with the 1920s.
The radio was important as a new mass consumption item.
Middle-class women gained new participation in popular culture, some of them going to nightclubs, smoking, and participating in dance crazes that often originated in the United States or Latin America.
The new culture seemed frenzied and disturbed the old ones.
The agricultural and coal mining sectors did not recover prosperity and the British economy as a whole remained sluggish.
The United States and Japan took over export markets in Western Europe.
Most western European countries have seen an increase in political extremism.
Many war veterans supported the new communist parties on the left.
Australia gained particular pride in its military role in 1901.
In the 1920s, several conferences confirmed the independence of the Dominions and their co-equal status with Britain.
The British Commonwealth of Nations was a free association of members.
Population gains from immigration and solid export growth were registered by the Dominions.
Australia responded to a strong labor movement with extensive welfare measures.
During the 1920s, U.S. economic and popular cultural initiatives advanced rapidly.
The economy grew throughout the decade.
Corpora tions expanded and innovated, for example, adding research and development operations to their portfolios.
The organization of work systems have changed.
The assembly line for automobiles was introduced in 1913 by Henry Ford, using conveyor belts to move parts past semi- skilled workers.
Industrial psychologists studied how to increase output by piping in music.
In Europe, Japan, and the Soviet Union, these production changes were copied.
The United States increased its cultural exports.
Hollywood stars, many of them foreign, became international staple by 1920, when Hol ywood became the global film capital.
The role of the United States in the world has never been simpler.
The Versailles treaty was rejected by the U.S. Senate.
The United States refused foreign alliances for two decades.
The United States had a "Red Scare" early in the decade that heightened resistance to outside influences.
During the 1920s, Japan entered a new phase of industrialization.
Increased use of mechani cal equipment improved agricultural output.
The freed labor was used to expand factories.
Japan rapidly augmented its heavy industrial sector, in metallurgy, shipbuilding, and electrical power, organized mainly by large industrial combines.
Rapid population growth was supported by the rise of succession and raw materials during the interwar decades.
There are tensions dancing to the new big bands.
Military leaders resented political controls that reduced their budgets.
The military was suspicious of growing consumerism in Japan and considered itself to be a guardian of Frederick Winslow Taylor, Employees and tradition.
Scientific Japanese involvement in China gave it independence in diplomacy.
Explicit hostility to liberal and democratic political systems emerged first on the fringes of western Europe.
After World War I, Italian fascists created the first state that would replace capitalism and socialism with a new national unity.
They pointed to the need for an aggressive foreign policy by the fascist government.
Fascists used aggressive foreign policy to seize power and build a strong state under a strong leader.
Rival political groups were attacked.
The need for new, authoritarian leadership and devotion to nationalist values in Germany during the 1920s was urged by many intellectuals.
Italy had gained so little new territory in World War I that the Nationalists resented the fact.
Some veterans felt abandoned by the civilian military programs, while others sought new action.
conserva control of economy was reduced because of labor unrest.
The Italian parliament seemed incapable of taking decisive measures.
Mussolini could make his mark even with a small group of supporters.
The new states of key settler societies were an important development.
The fascists were the only hope to stem left-wing agi tation and parliamentary incompetence.
Mussolini abolished most opposition, suspended elections, and issued strident propaganda about the glories of military conquest when he was in power.
The first fascist regime moved with some caution, fitting into the briefly hopeful negotiations among European states in the 1920s, but the prin ciples it preached suggested how far European poli tics had been overthrown from the widespread prewar agreements on parliamentary rule.
Authoritarian regimes took root in east central Europe during the 1920s.
In the 1918 peace treaty, the Soviet Union regained some territory, but it lost ground to a number of east European states.
Most of the new nations, from the Baltic states to Yugoslavia, were consumed by nationalist excitement at independence but also harbored intense grievances about territories they had not acquired.
The small eastern European states were weakened by their bitter rivalries.
As in Yugoslavia, authoritarianism came from a monarch's seizure of new power or from a dictator.
There were more underlying social tensions that led to this political pattern.
Most eastern European countries were dependent on sales to western Europe.
After the collapse of agricultural prices in the 1920s, they were damaged further by the Depression.
Most countries refused to reform their land.
The peasant movements brought estate owners to support authoritarian regimes, which often had fascist trappings.
Peasant land hunger and poverty were not addressed in most cases.
Balance Sheet Changes in Europe, other Western societies, and Japan during the 1920s were complexample Democratic and parliamentary political forms took root in places like Canada and Japan.
Significant industrial and social change combined with signs of creativity in culture.
In Italy and much of east central Europe, chal enges to democracy arose, while Japanese politics became less stable.
The United States tried to stay out of world politics.
The economic foundations of the major industrial powers were shaky.
The economy of western Europe was challenged by the United States and Japan in the 1920s.
Latin America was 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 Many countries depend on a key export crop, like coffee, to maintain their dominance.
These crops provided profits to their owners, but they also depended on low wages for their workers.
In a process called import substitution, several Latin American countries expanded their industrial base.
The initiative faded after the war, leading to further poverty.
Some political change was stimulated by these developments.
The middle classes had their say in economic and political matters.
There were major strikes from 1907 onward, imported from Latin America and repressed by the state.
The class conflict intensified.
There was a revolution from European political movements in Mexico.
A period of almost ten years from the time when several cataclysmic events launched Latin America into the 20th century would determine much of the region's subsequent history.
The Mexican Revolution was influenced by the outbreak of World War I.
Most Latin American nations did not participate in the Great Zapata.
A spurt of manufacturing in 1876, dominated Mexican politics, and some small steps were taken to overcome the traditional for 35 years, imposed strong central dependence on outside supply.
The United States became the government at the end of World War I.
During the reforms in 1910, huge economic changes had been made, and foreign concessions in mining had been made, and the Mexican elite had a sense of prosperity, thanks to railroads and other sectors of the economy.
This progress was bought at considerable expense.
Foreigners killed large sectors in 1913.
The political system was corrupt.
The Mexican revolutionary and military ment took repressive measures against workers, peasants, and American Indians who opposed the commander in northern Mexico loss of their lands or unbearable working conditions.
During the Mexican Revolution, political opponents were imprisoned or exiled.
Through an effective political machine, Diaz ruled with an iron fist.
The economy, increasingly dependent on exports, lacked Zapata in removing Diaz from adequate investment funds.
20 percent of the nation's territory was owned by U.S. concerns.
A major spur to the campaigns that removed Madero revolutionary wave in general was the reaction to growing nation power in 1911.
By 1910, he was 80 years old and vulnerable to political opposition.
Madero believed that some can revolutionary and military moderate democratic political reforms would relieve social tensions and allow the government to commander of peasant guerrilla continue its economic development with a minimum of popular unrest.
The movement after 1910 centered in could stand.
Things returned to Morelos after Madero was arrested and a rigged election, and they succeeded along with normal.
Madero called for a revolt after being released from prison.
A general rebellion developed after the removal of Diaz from power.
Morelos, an area of old conflicts between American Indian communities and large sugar estates, was demanded for a land reform.
His motto "Tierra y Libertad" (Land and Liberty) is the newest stage of world history.
It became apparent that Madero's moderate programs wouldn't resolve Mexico's continuing social problems as soon as it became apparent that Diaz was driven from power by this coalition of forces.
Madero lost control of his subordinates after Zapata rose in revolt.
Madero was assassinated in 1913, after a military coup removed him from government, because the U.S. ambassador in Mexico wanted to prevent revolutionary changes.
The tide of revolution could not be stopped because of the centralized dictatorship.
The removal of political opponents of Huerta's illegal rule led to the rise of Villa and Zapata and other middle-class in Mexico.
The victori Madero was forced from power in 1913, but the leaders fought over the nature of the new regime and the mantle of leadership.
The U.S. intervention to bring order to the border regions and diplomatic maneuverings after World War I complicated matters.
The more moderate political leaders in Mexico City were able to keep control of the government despite the fact that Villa and Zapata remained in control of their home territories.
The civil war ended in 1920 and Mexico began to consolidate the changes that had taken place in the previous decade.
In that year, Obregon was elected president.
The presidents from the new "revolutionary elite" tried to consolidate the new regime.
1.5 million people died in the revolution, major industries were destroyed, and ranching and farming were disrupted.
The revolution promised real changes, but it did not always deliver.
Land reform, restrictions on church ownership of property, and promises of educational foreign ownership of key resources were promised.
The workers who had been mobilized were given representation in the government and organized in a national confederation.
The Mexican Revolution was launched by the government.
After failing to integrate the American Indians into national life for a century, Mexico is attempting to "Indianize" the nation through secular schools that emphasize nationalism and a vision of the Mexican past.
The Mexican muralist movement period after the Mexican Revolution had a wide impact on artists throughout Latin America, as Orozco himself stated, it famous for murals painted on walls sometimes created simple solutions and strange utopias by mixing a romantic image of the American of public buildings.
In literature, music, and the arts, the revolution and 1949) Mexican muralist of the period its themes provided a stimulation to a tremendous burst of creativity, as in the following lines of poetry: after the Mexican Revolution.
The face of this man of the Revolution rested, his lips pressed to the ground, after he and his loyal steed fell in the hail of rounds.
Without opposition, the gains of the revolution wouldn't have been made.
Many of the ideas of Marxist socialism were held by leading Mexican intellectuals and a few politicians.
Secularization of society and especially education was opposed by the Catholic Church and clergy in some states.
The church supported the peasant movement in central Mexico.
The fighting in central Mexico lasted for years until a compromise was reached.
There was an inci armed violence.
The mis sion didn't work.
The war in Europe dominated U.S. foreign policy until 1918.
When U.S.-owned oil companies ran into problems with workers, there was a conflict between the United States and the new government.
When the fighting ended, there was a question of continuity.
The leadership wanted to create a one-party system to institutionalize the new regime.
During the 1920s and 1930s, the Party of the Institutionalized Revolution became a dominant force in Mexican politics.
It incorporated labor, peasant, mili tary, and middle-class sectors and proved flexible enough to incorporate new interest groups as they developed.
Although Mexico became a multiparty democracy in theory, in reality the PRI controlled politics and kept its hold on national political life.
The strongmen of the 19th century governed much like the presidents of today, but the party structure and the need to incorporate various interests within the government coalition limited the worst aspects of caudillo.
The policy of limiting the presidency to one six-year term ensured some change in leadership.
The question of whether a revolution could be institutionalized was still being debated.
By the end of the 20th century, many Mexicans believed that the principles and programs of the revolutionaries of 1910 were gone.
In March 1917, strikes and food riots broke out in Russia's capital.
During the war, there were painful food shortages.
They protested the conditions of early industrialization against incomplete rural reform and an unresponsive political system.
They assumed revolutionary proportions very quickly.
The rioters wanted a new political regime as well as more food and work.
The tsar's forces tried to hit back but were unsuccessful.
The tsar's ministers were arrested by a soviet council of workers.
Unable to rely on his own soldiers, the tsar abdicated, ending the long period of imperial rule.
The government was liberal for eight months.
The first phase of the French revolution cannot be compared to the Russian Revolution of 1917 because of the small middle class.
Russia's revolution took place in more adverse circumstances due to the pressures of religious freedom.
The war effort was linked to France and Britain by the initial liberal leaders.
The nation was desperately war weary and prolonga tion greatly worsened economic conditions.
In good middle-class fashion, the 1900-Present held back from the massive land reforms expected by the peasantry, for they respected existing property arrangements and did not wish to rush into social change before a legitimate new political structure could be established.
In October, a second revolution took place, which brought to power the radical, Bolshevik wing of the Social Democratic party, and their dynamic chief, Lenin.
The revolution was good for Lenin.
The power of international capitalism and the creation of a massive proletariat in a society that had not directly passed through middle-class rule was what inspired this revolutionary to write about Russia's readiness for a communist revolt.
The urban workers' council in the major cities had a strong position for Lenin.
His belief was that revolution should not come from mass action but from tightly organized cells with a plan of action.
After the liberals were deposed, the Bolsheviks faced several immediate problems.
Russia's continued involvement in World War I was handled by signing a peace treaty with Germany and giving up huge sections of western Russia in return for an end to hostilities.
The treaty was nullified by Germany's defeat at the hands of the Western allies, but Russia was ignored at the Versailles peace conference.
New nation-states were created after much former territory was converted.
A revived Poland built a lot of land that Russia had controlled for more than a century.
The early end of the war was important to the consolidation of power because of Russia's grievances against the Versailles treaty.
The second problem faced at the end of 1917 was that the Bolsheviks were not the most popular revolutionary party, even though they had gained a majority role in the leading urban soviets.
The November seizure of power led to the creation of the Council of People's Commissars, which were drawn from soviets across the nation.
The Bolshevik headquarters were guarded by Moscow workers during the Russian Revolution of 1917.
The party emphasized rural reform.
The parliament was replaced by a congress of soviets.
Russia had no Western-style, multiparty system but rather a Bolshevik monopoly in the name of the true people's will.
The Communist party's control of the government apparatus lasted from this point to 1989 and was much different from the fate of revolutionary groups in the past.
Russia's revolution produced a backlash that revolutionaries in other eras would have recognized: foreign hostility and domestic resistance.
The communist success threatened the principles of property and freedom that the world's leading nations cherished deeply.
Some regimes were injured by Russia's renunciation of its heavy foreign debts, and they disliked the unexpected.
The attacks on France in 1792 were the reason for the attempt at intervention.
Britain, France, the United States, and Japan sent troops.
This intervention did not cause much damage.
The Western powers were exhausted by World War I and pulled out quickly, while Japan was interested in remaining in Russia.
The internal civil war, which foreign troops abetted, raged from 1918 to 1921.
The common cause against the communist regime was made up of tsar generals, peasants, and minority nationalities.
Their efforts were aided by continuing eco nomic distress, the normal result of revolutionary disarray, but also heightened by earlier communist measures.
The redistribution of land to the peasantry and nationalization of basic industry was launched by Lenin.
Many already landed peasants resented the loss of property and incentive and lowered food production and goods sent to markets.
Manufacturing was disrupted by industrial nationalization.
The civil war fires were caused by the economic hardship created by famine and unemployment.
Workers revolted in several cities, threatening the new regime's most obvious social base as well as its ideological mainstay.
Russia's Communist Regime Order was restored after the revolution.
Basic economic policies were set by the state, but efforts were combined with individual initiative.
The regime gained time to prepare the more durable structures of the communist initiative and the food system was allowed under this temporary policy.
The Bolshevik revolution was accomplished by 1923.
Moscow was a new capital.
A federal system of socialist republics was established by a new constitution.
Since the separate republics were firmly party; diminished nationalities controlled by the national Communist party and since basic decisions were as firmly centralized, the protest under Bolsheviks was somewhat mixed.
The revolutions of the early decades colonies and other neutral states were the first of their kind since the late 18th and early 19th centuries.
The early 20th-century upheavals incidence of revolutions in the 20th century were just the first waves of a revolu intellectual climate.
There were notions of pro tionary tide and a belief in the perfect fury after 1945.
Peasants were part of an effort to overthrow existing regimes that were spurred by pressures of population that they viewed as exploitive and growth.
New societies that brought justice and a decent while making traditional protests more difficult were some of the benefits of modern state forms.
The Industrial Revolution and the Western-centered, global market erful driving force for revolutionary currents throughout the system fed the vision of the was.
A century from Mexico to China, handicraft producers were thrown out of work.
The extent to which highly competitive capitalist societies in central Mexico who lost their land to moneylenders frequently developed social welfare programs to curb social discontent that rallied to calls to riot is one measure of their influence.
Unemployment in the colonies is a challenge to the social order.
Urban laborers are enraged and regain greater national autonomy.
Mexico, Russia, and China all sought to reduce Western economic control and cultural influ teristic of the early stages of industrialization by using appalling working and living conditions.