The human brain has cranial nerves that control motor output for the head and neck.
The sensory and motor axons are contained in each of the 31 spine nerves.
Each sensory neuron has a projection that ends in skin, muscle, or sensory organs, and another that ends in the spine.
The cells of the motor neurons are in the gray matter of the spine.
The interneurons within the spine are usually stimulated by sensory neurons.
Both sensory and motor axons can be found in the spine.
The sensory cortex is located in the root ganglia.
The gray matter of the spine contains the soma of motor neurons.
While scientists have discovered potential causes of many of these diseases, and viable treatments for some, ongoing research seeks to find ways to better prevent and treat all of these disorders.
As more and more neurons die, these diseases get worse.
The death of neurons in the nervous system is related to the symptoms of a particular neurodegenerative disease.
Spinocerebellar ataxia leads to death in the cerebellum.
Balance and walking problems are caused by the death of these neurons.
Alzheimer's disease is one of the types of dementia disorders.
Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease will be discussed in more detail here.
Alzheimer's disease cost the US $200 billion in 2012 and an estimated 5.4 million Americans were affected.
One in eight people over the age of 65 have the disease.
As the baby-boomer generation ages, there will be as many as 13 million Alzheimer's patients in the United States in the year 2050.
Disruption of memory, confusion about time or place, difficulty planning or executing tasks, and poor judgement are some of the symptoms of Alzheimer's disease.
Problems smelling certain smells are indicative of Alzheimer's disease and may be an early warning sign.
Many of these symptoms are common in people who are aging normally, so it is the severity and longevity of the symptoms that determine whether a person is suffering from Alzheimer's.
Alzheimer's disease was named after Alois Alzheimer, a German psychiatrist who published a report about a woman with dementia.
He and his colleagues looked at the woman's brain after her death and found clumps of amyloid plaques and tangles of brain fibers.
Alzheimer's patients have plaques and tangles in their brains.
In Alzheimer's patients, the loss of the hippocampus is more severe.
The causes of these hallmarks of the disease are being examined by many research groups.
One form of the disease is caused by the same genes.
Less than five percent of patients with the disease are affected by this form of early Alzheimer's.
The late-onset form of the disease has a genetic component.
Apolipoprotein E (APOE) has a variant that increases a carrier's likelihood of getting the disease.
There are many genes that may be involved in the pathology.
You can find links to learning about genetics and Alzheimer's disease on this website.
There is no cure for Alzheimer's disease.
The symptoms of the disease are the focus of current treatments.
Several drugs are used to treat Alzheimer's disease because of the decrease in the activity of cholinergic neurons, which is a sign of the disease.
Behavioral therapies like psychotherapy, sensory therapy, and cognitive exercises are included in other clinical interventions.
Since Alzheimer's disease hijacks the normal aging process, research into prevention is on the rise.
Smoking, Obesity, and cardiovascular problems may be risk factors for the disease, so treatments for those may also help to prevent Alzheimer's disease.
People who remain intellectually active by playing games, reading, playing musical instruments, and being socially active in later life have a reduced risk of developing the disease.
A patient with Alzheimer's disease has a brain that is more damaged than a normal brain.
James Parkinson characterized it in 1817.
50,000-60,000 people are diagnosed with the disease in the United States each year.
Parkinson's disease causes the loss of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra, a midbrain structure that regulates movement.
There are many symptoms caused by the loss of these neurons, including tremors, slowed movement, speech changes, balance and posture problems, and rigid muscles.
Parkinson's disease can cause psychological symptoms, such as dementia or emotional problems.
Although some patients have a form of the disease known to be caused by a single mutations, for most patients the exact causes of Parkinson's disease remain unknown: the disease likely results from a combination of genetic and environmental factors.
Lewy bodies are found in Parkinson's patients' brains.
The prevalence of Lewy bodies is related to the severity of the disease.
There is no cure for Parkinson's disease.
L-DOPA is a chemical that is converted into dopamine in the brain and is one of the most commonly prescribed drugs for Parkinson's.
This conversion can help compensate for the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra.
Other drugs work by breaking down dopamine.
Parkinson's patients have hunched walks.
The development of the nervous system can be disturbed.
There are different types of disorders.
There are some disorders that have complex symptoms.
The prevalence of the disorder has changed a lot in the past few decades.
Estimates show that one in 88 children will develop the disorder.
Males are four times more likely to have the disorder than females.
There has been a recent increase in the number of people diagnosed withautism.
Impaired social skills are a symptom of the condition.
Children on the spectrum may have difficulty making eye contact and reading social cues.
They may have trouble empathizing with others.
Repetitive motor behaviors, preoccupation with specific subjects, strict adherence to certain rituals, and unusual language use are some of the symptoms of ASD.
Up to 30 percent of patients with ASD develop synechia, and patients with some forms of the disorder also have intellectual disability.
Other patients with the spectrum disorder are very functional and have good language skills.
The causes of ASD are largely unknown, except for some well-characterized, clearly genetic forms of the disorder.
For any given patient, there may be many different variations in different genes that are required for the disease to develop.
The disease of "incorrect" wiring is thought to be the cause of ASD.
The brains of some people with the condition don't have the same level of synaptic pruning.
There was a research paper in the 1990s that linked the vaccine for the vaccine for the vaccine for the vaccine for the vaccine for the vaccine for the vaccine for the vaccine for the vaccine for the vaccine for the vaccine for the vaccine for the vaccine for the vaccine for the vaccine for the vaccine When it was discovered that the author fudged data, the paper was withdrawn.
Behavioral therapies and interventions are usually combined with medications to treat other disorders common to people with autism.
Early interventions can help mitigate the effects of the disease, but there is no cure for it.
Males are more likely to have attention deficit disorder than females.
Inattention, executive functioning difficulties, impulsivity, and hyperactivity are some of the symptoms of the disorder.
Some patients with attention deficit disorder (ADD) do not have the symptoms of attention deficit disorder.
Many people with attention deficit disorder also have other disorders.
Depression or obsessive compulsive disorder are examples.
Research shows that there is a delay in the development of the prefrontal cortex in people with attention deficit disorder.
The disorder has a strong genetic component.
There are genes that may contribute to the disorder, but no definitive links have been found.
Environmental factors, including exposure to certain pesticides, may contribute to the development of ADHD in some patients.
Behavioral therapies and the prescription of drugs that calm the mind of patients with attention deficit disorder are often used.
Many people with attention deficit disorder have other neurological disorders.
Neurological physicians specialize in disorders of the nervous system.
They diagnose and treat disorders such as Parkinson's disease, sleep disorders, and multiplesclerosis.
Medical doctors who have attended college, medical school, and completed three to four years of residency are called neurologists.
A neurologist performs a complete physical exam on a new patient and takes a full medical history.
Specific tasks are used in the physical exam to determine what areas of the brain, spine, and peripheral nervous system may be damaged.
If the hypoglossal nerve is malfunctioning, the patient will be asked to move his or her tongue in different ways.
Neurologicals can use other tools besides a physical exam to diagnose problems in the nervous system.
If the patient has had a seizure, the neurologist can useEEG, which involves taping electrodes to the scalp to record brain activity, to try to determine which brain regions are involved in the seizure.
If you have a suspected stroke, a neurologist can use a computerized tomography (CT) Scan to look for bleeding in the brain or a brain tumor.
Neurological problems can be treated with medication or surgery.
You can see the different tests a neurologist might use to see what parts of the nervous system are damaged in a patient.
Mental illnesses can cause problems with thinking, mood, or relating with other people.
These disorders can affect a person's quality of life and make it difficult for them to perform their daily tasks.
Approximately 12.5 million Americans are affected bybilitating mental disorders at an annual cost of more than $300 billion.
Schizophrenia, major depression, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders and phobias, post-traumatic stress disorders, and obsessive-compulsive disorder are some of the mental disorders.
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders is published by the American Psychiatric Association.
As scientists learn more about these disorders, their causes, and how they relate to each other, each new version of the DSM contains different symptoms and classifications.
Below is a more detailed discussion of two mental illnesses.
The inability to differentiate between reality and imagination, inappropriate and unregulated emotional responses, difficulty thinking, and problems with social situations are some of the symptoms of the disease.
People with scurvy may also suffer from delusions.
Patients have negative symptoms like a flattened emotional state, loss of pleasure, and loss of basic drives.
Many patients are diagnosed at a young age.
Problems with dopaminergic neurons are thought to be involved in the development of schizophrenia.
The treatment for the disease usually involves the use of antipsychotic medications that block dopamine receptors and decrease dopamine neurotransmission in the brain.
Parkinson's diseaselike symptoms can be caused by a decrease in dopamine.
Some classes of antipsychotics can be effective at treating the disease, but they are not a cure and most patients must remain on their medication for the rest of their lives.
To be diagnosed with major depression, a person must 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 Major depression can be caused by both genetic and environmental risk factors.
The "classic monoamine hypothesis" suggests that depression is caused by a decrease in the amount of dopamine in the brain.
One argument against this hypothesis is the fact that some antidepressants cause an increase in dopamine and norepinephrine in the brain within a few hours of starting treatment, but clinical results are not seen until weeks later.
There are alternative hypotheses that dopamine may be decreased in depressed patients, or that antidepressants cause a feedback loop that decreases this release.
Depression can be treated with a variety of therapies, including psychotherapy, deep-brain stimulation, and prescription medications.
Different classes of antidepressants work through different mechanisms.
Serotonin is reuptake into the presynaptic neuron.
Depression can be treated with drugs such as norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitors and norepinephrine-serotonin reuptake inhibitors.
There are other neurological disorders that can't be easily placed in the above categories.
Chronic pain conditions, cancer of the nervous system, and stroke are included.
Seizures and strokes are discussed.
There are several different types of seizures.
Seizures can be a symptom of a brain injury, disease, or other illness.
The developmental wiring malfunction that caused the intellectual disability can put people at risk for seizures.
For many patients, the cause of their scurvy is never identified and is likely to be a combination of genetic and environmental factors.
Anticonvulsant medications can be used to control seizures.
For very severe cases, brain surgery may be necessary to remove the brain area where seizures originate.
A stroke occurs when blood fails to reach a portion of the brain for a long time.
The brain region is dependent on blood flow for oxygen.
Depending on the brain area affected, this can cause headaches, muscle weakness, or paralysis, as well as sensory problems, memory loss, and confusion.
The bursting of a weak blood vessel can be the cause of a stroke.
In the United States, strokes are the third most common cause of death.
One person in the United States experiences a stroke every 40 seconds.
75 percent of strokes occur in people older than 65.
A family history of stroke is one of the risk factors for stroke.
Smoking increases the risk of stroke.
Because a stroke is a medical emergency, patients with symptoms of a stroke should immediately go to the emergency room, where they can receive drugs that will destroy any clot that may have formed.
If the stroke was caused by a burst blood vessel or if the stroke took more than three hours to arrive at the hospital, these drugs will not work.
Blood pressure medication and physical therapy can be used to treat strokes.
The myelinated axon leads to the axon terminals.
The nervous system is made up of cells.
The action potential causes release of are specialized cells that are capable of sending electrical as neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft.
The dendrites and axons that bind to postsynaptic receptors are found in most neurons.
The four main types of depolarizing are the neurons.
The Glia are non-neuronal cells in the nervous system.
There are several types of glia that are connected through gap junctions.
Neurons communicate static structures and can be weakened or strengthened.
There are long-term depression and potentiation in the Neurons.
The brain has a nervous system that provides unconscious control.
The sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems can be broken down into four primary functional parasympathetic nervous systems in mammals.
In a fight or flight response, the thalamus, hypothalamus, limbic system, and the sympathetic nervous system are activated.
The parasympathetic cerebellum and brainstem are active during rest periods.
The sensory designation overlaps.
The nervous system is made up of cranial and spine nerves that are located in the brain and transmit information from the skin to the muscles.
There are some general themes that emerge from the sampling of nervous transmits sensory and motor input.
System changes that become risk factors and nurture.
Treatment options are sensory-somatic nervous systems because the peripheral nervous system has yet to be fully determined.
The autonomic doesn't address symptoms.
The nerve cell's cell body is called the soma.
The sympathetic pathway is responsible for relaxing the body.
The sympathetic d. Dendrites carry the signal to the soma.
There are other cells in the brain that provide myelin.
Meningitis is a disease of the brain.
Phineas Gage was a railroad worker in the 19th century.
The opening of additional c. parietal lobe voltage-gated channels and the inactivation of d. temporal lobe sodium channels cause the membrane to return to its resting potential.
Parkinson's disease is caused by the loss of brain cells.
The two cerebral hemispheres are connected by the _____.
The medications are used to treat patients.
Strokes are often caused by something.
The diseases have genes that are not associated with them.
They have genes that make them prone to schizophrenia.
There are no obvious defects in the brain.
Alzheimer's disease affects three of the four parts of the brain.
The symptoms of one of the involved lobes are associated with the disease.