One of the most energy-hungry processes in a cell is the synthesis of proteins.
In turn, the mass of living organisms is determined by the mass of proteins, which perform a wide variety of functions in a cell.
decoding an mRNA message into a polypeptide product is the process of translation.
The lengths of the amino acids can range from 50 to more than 1,000.
The process of translation is aided by many other molecules.
The structures and functions of the protein machinery are similar to those of human cells.
The input of ribosomes, tRNAs, and various enzymatic factors is required for translation.
The large and small subunits of the ribosome are included in the synthesis machinery.
A ribosome is a complex macromolecule composed of structural and catalytic rRNAs.
The synthesis and assembly of rRNAs is done by the nucleolus.
There are ribosomes in the prokaryotes and in the cytoplasm and the endoplasmic reticulum in the eukaryotes.
Ribosomes are made up of two parts, a large one and a small one.
Each ribosomal molecule is translated into another ribosomal molecule in the same direction.
40 to 60 different types of tRNA can be found in the cytoplasm.
tRNAs are used as adaptors and add the corresponding amino acid to the polypeptide chain.
tRNAs translate the language of RNA into the language of proteins.
Each tRNA must have its own specific bond to it to function.
In the process of tRNA "charging," each tRNA molecule is attached to its correct amino acid.
A mobile copy of one or more genes with an alphabet of A, C, G, and uracil is generated by the cellular process of transcription.
It can be said that the alphabet consists of 20 letters.
There are different numbers of "letters" in the "letters" in the "letters" in the "letters" in the "letters" in the "letters" in the "letters" in the "letters" in the "letters" in The figure shows the genetic code for the translation of the triplet into an acid or a signal in the cell.
Three of the codons release the polypeptide from the translation machinery.
AUG has a special function.
The frame for translation is set by the AUG start codon.
There is a universal genetic code.
With a few exceptions, virtually all species use the same genetic code, which is powerful evidence that all life on Earth is related.
Just as with mRNA synthesis, the synthesis can be divided into three phases.
The process of translation is the same in both pro and eukaryotes.
The AUG start codon is linked to a special form of the methionine that is typically removed from the polypeptide after translation is complete.
The P site bonds charged tRNAs that have formed bonds with the growing polypeptide chain but have not yet been separated from their corresponding tRNA.
The E site releases dissociated tRNAs.
Each process that occurs in the three sites is catalyzed by the ribosome.
The charged tRNA enters the complex, the polypeptide becomes longer, and the un charged tRNA leaves.
The energy for each bond is derived from GTP.
A codon is recognized by a tRNA anticodon.
A second tRNA is recruited when the large ribosomal subunit joins the small one.
The polypeptide chain is formed when the ribosome is relative to the mRNA.
Entry of a release factor into the A site terminates translation.
When a stop codon is encountered, translation ceases.
When the ribosome encounters the stop codon, the growing polypeptide is released and the ribosome subunits leave the mRNA.
After many ribosomes have translated, the mRNA is degraded so it can be used in another reaction.
You can transcribe a gene and translate it to a protein using the genetic code.