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We have a complete sequence for several species and a nearly complete sequence for human DNA.
In this chapter, the implications for biology and medicine are discussed.
A brief explanation of the structures of genes is what the authors begin with.
The unity of biochemistry is important.
It means that we can study any living organisms to learn about human biochemistry.
Weak noncovalent interactions are important for many biochemical interactions.
The properties of water and their effects on biomolecules are also described because the majority of biochemical processes occur in water.
Then there is a discussion of the laws of nature.
This gives a basis for understanding.
The impact of biochemistry is highlighted by the authors.
The most popular models are presented in an appendix.
You should be able to complete the objectives once you have mastered this chapter.
Draw the four bases used in DNA and explain the structure of the sugar phosphate backbone.
Compare the structure of the two.
The sequence (a)AAA would pair with the sequence (a)AAA.
The difference between the two is that the former is usually single stranded.
The Eukarya are all multicellular.
All the characteristics in the right column are appropriate for the bonds or interactions in the left column.
Water has the ability to form bonds with itself.
There are long nonpolar chains attached to a polar head group in the biological membranes.
When water is placed in the mouth of a phospholipid, they form structures.
The heat is given off by the reaction.
Match the types of models in the left column with the applications in the right column.
In water,phobic interactions are strengthened.
The water network is formed when the nonpolar chains of the individual phospholipids are exposed to water.
The water is ordered with energy.
The order of the water can be reduced by decreasing the total surface area and the amount of energy required to order it.
The entire system is stable because of the coalescence.
The interaction between the molecule would be weakened because of the high dielectric constant of water.
The book states that hydrogen bonds, van der Waals, and the hydrophobic effect are contributing to folding.
The puzzle of human alcoholism and schizo phrenia have evaded easy biochemical explanation after many decades of work.
There is good evidence of genes that increase alcohol consumption in animals.
Free will is a problem in humans.
The ball-and-stick model is the best one to show the bonding arrangements and the backbone configurations of biomolecules.
The "messages" in the two sequence have the same information content and are translatable.
As will be seen in the succeeding chapters, the binding site for sub-straches is provided by the enzymes.
The sites are designed to exclude water.
At a binding site, a negatively charged substrate interacts with a positively charged atom.
A numerical answer is not required.
Adding van der Waals contact distances to the contact distances between an amide hydrogen and a carbonyl oxy Gen that are participating in hydrogen binding is less than expected.
Water can form hydrogen bonds with one another.
The amount of energy required to increase the temperature of a gram of water by 1oC is a measure of water's heat capacity.
The oxygen-carrying myoglobin is made of a mixture of 153 acids.
The molecule could be as long as 230 A if the chain assumed a regular and periodic conformation in which each residue is separated from the next by a distance of 1.5 A.
The myoglobin molecule is no more than 45 A in length.
The second law of thermodynamics states that thedisorder of a system and its surroundings always increases for a spontaneously occurring process.
It is clear that the folding of the proteins moves from a disorderly state to an orderly state.
According to the text, genetically engineeredbacteria can be used to produce valuable proteins.
The alphabet (26 letters) is similar to the Morse Code (three symbols--dot, dash, and space).
The 26 letters of the English language can be used to write out any thoughts that can be expressed in English.
The same message can be conveyed with a longer string of symbols.
The ribosome is half the size ofRNA and owes its function to ribosomalRNA.
It gives the "message" or "blueprint" for every molecule of a molecule.
The environment that enhances ionic interaction is created by the lined active sites of the enzymes.
Both atoms attract each other with partial charges.
The hydrogen is bound to the nitrogen atom by the single electron of the hy drogen atom.
The distance between the electronic shells of hydrogen and carbonyl oxygen has been reduced.
It takes a lot of energy to break the hydrogen bonds when water is heated.
The temperature is raised after a large percentage of bonds are broken.
Cells can resist changes in temperature because of water's high heat capacity.
The myoglobin molecule is folded into a compact structure because it is less long than before.
The conclusion was first reached in the 1930s when studies showed that certain proteins are shorter than they were predicted to be.
John Kendrew used x-ray analysis to show that myoglobin is an assembly of rodlike chains with overall dimensions of 45 x 35 x 25 A.
Most CHAPTER 1 proteins fold into compact structures in solution.
The folding of those structures will be discussed in the text.
In the chapter, it's explained thatfolded globular proteins have a hydrophobic interior.
The process of folding releases water, which would have been kept in theprotein chain.
Although the system has a decrease, the "surroundings" have an increased entropy.
The negative enthalpy changes when weak bonds form as a result of a positive free-energy change.
It had to be from animals.
The Pancreatic glands were taken from slaughter-houses.
It was not unusual for people to have allergies to foreign types ofinsulin.
Modern methods allow production of the human form of insulin in large quantities and high purity, which is a very clear improvement over the old system.
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