Our understanding of behavior is enhanced by our knowledge of Biological theories.
Two related topics, motivation and emotion, will help us understand complex behaviors.
The brain plays a key role in regulating emotions.
The last part of this chapter shows how the cognitive evalua Relating Emotions and Behavior: tion affects our emotional responses.
Some examples are easier to explain.
We know why Jessica and Susan ate and drank water.
The Gender Effects explanations are not as straightforward when it comes to training for a marathon.
The motivation is a hypothetical state.
We can't see or touch the Language of Emotion, but we can infer it from observable behaviors.
Two rats have learned to press a lever to get food in a Skinner box.
The lever-press response may be triggered by the sight of the cage.
Thehunger is an equally important factor and may influence the rats' behavior.
This question may be answered by the third and final aspect of our definition.
If we learned that the first rat had not been fed for 12 hours, then we could conclude that the second rat had not been fed for 6 hours.
The first rat is hungrier.
Several theories have been proposed to understand this complexity.
Biological theories focus on how the body works.
The unlearned behaviors that are part of the organism's repertoire are among these processes.
Bats use the same technology as radar to locate objects.
The sound of waves on the surface of the ocean can be used to release moths.
The stickleback fish has been studied to investigate reproductive and aggressive behavior.
There is a red spot on the belly of a male stickleback during the spring.
Tinbergen determined that the red spot was a releasingStimulus.
Male sticklebacks build tunnels.
There is no proof of such behaviors in humans.
It's difficult to rule out the influence of learning.
Attempts to explain human behavior with the concept of instincts failed, but psychologists continued their interest in the influence of biological factors on behavior.
John B. Watson wanted to understand the relationship between stimuli and responses.
Behaviorists believed that the head would evoke the same response every time, but this was not the case.
There are times when environmental stimuli remain constant, but an organ of the male on the left.
The activity level of female rats peaks every fifth source.
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Rats' behavior is influenced by an internal motivational state created by the estrus cycle.
More than one response can be activated by drives.
If food is hard to come by, a rat may try other ways to get food.
You can ask a friend for a loan, search your car for change, or check vending machines for change that people have forgotten.
The internal motivational state of hunger can drive your behaviors toward the goal of obtaining food.
The concept of drives was used by Clark Hull.
A lack of water is a cause of a drive.
The drive can be activated by learned ones such as lever pressing.
Let's go back to our opening scenario.
Because they were thirsty and hungry, Jessica and Susan ate and drank.
In both cases they were returning their bodies to a more balanced state of functioning that existed before they were thirsty or hungry.
Some theorists think that drive reduction is necessary for learning because behaviors that are after a hard workout are learned.
They will find a way to quench their thirst when a behavior results in drive reduction.
Habit strength, or ten dency, is high when a behavior is followed by drive reduction many times.
I don't want to achieve a goal that reduces hungry.
I will drive by satisfying the need.
The next time I'm hungry, there will be less responses.
When the drive is strong, it will prompt behaviors such as looking up at the helicopter or touching the work of art.
Frequency of these behaviors should increase in the future due to successful completion of these behaviors.
The definition and measure of a stimulus drive such as curiosity is not as straightforward as the definition and measurement of hunger.
In the experimentMcDaniel and Zuckerman did, participants were asked questions about how much they spent on sensation-seeking monkeys, as well as how much and what opening and closing they did.
They were involved in some types of gambling.
They found that people who participated in many sensation-seeking behaviors had more interest in gam curiosity drive.
Individuals with high sensation seeking and interest in gam bling sought out different types of gambling and switched games more often than others with lower levels of sensation seeking.
Think about the results of the study for a moment.
Before reading further, write down some possible answers.
The results suggest that we don't always seek to reduce stimulation as the drive reduction theory suggests; rather, experiencing change in stimulation is important.
Playing the same game all night was boring and a change in stimulation was satisfying.
Riding a roller coaster, singing in the shower, and changing radio stations are some of the ways in which stimulation can be sought.
The level of stimulation to which a person has become accustomed determines the optimum level of arousal or change.
In general, stimulation that is too far above or below an optimum level is unpleasant.
People in urban and rural areas have adapted to different levels of stimulation.
They rate sensory deprivation as more unpleasant than it is for urban people.
The theories of motivation help us understand our need for change.
Cognitive theories of motivation focus on how we process information.
You don't always eat to reduce a drive when you are hungry.
The body functions best when it comes to where you eat.
Individuals are thought to be thinking at a specific level of arousal, which is about, planning, and exercising control over their behavior.
The cognitive-consistency theories and the hierarchy of needs are the most prominent theories.
According to cognitive-consistency theories, we are motivated to achieve a psychological state in which our beliefs and behaviors are consistent.
Students who don't get around to studying need to achieve consistency between their thoughts and actions.
They may achieve consistency by deciding they are too tired to study.
It motivates us to reduce the discomfort because of cogni tive dissonance.
Our brains are compatible with one another.
You were told to pick one of the gifts.
You rate the items on a scale of 0 to 100.
It's easy to choose between a highly desirable gift and a less desirable gift.
It is more difficult to make a decision when there are two very desirable gifts.
Rejecting the second means choosing one gift.
The decision is easy when the second gift is less desirable.
Selecting which ates conflict is what was instructed to be done when choosing between equally desirable gifts.
Many people wonder about two gifts they would like to receive after a difficult decision has been made.
They had one gift that was low and they had to make a decision.
Dissonance can happen in situations other than choosing.
The dangers of the choice were more difficult for smokers.
They may look for reports that support their smoking behavior, or they may choose to focus on people who have smoked for decades with no apparent ill effects.
An observational study of men who regularly spent time at a cigar shop engaged in con positively was rated more observational than a rejected gift study.
All of them were rated negatively.
They crafted arguments to refute the medical research findings and to insulate themselves from the impact of antismoking messages, thus reducing their cognitive dis sonance when they lit up.
When your political beliefs are challenged, consider your reaction.
The people who hold similar opinions to yours agree.
The phenomenon of cognitive dissonance is also found in group settings.
When individuals find that their opinions are at odds with those of the group, they are likely to try to reach a consensus by persuading others, changing their own positions to match those of the group, or joining a group with attitudes that are con sistent with their own.
We try to increase cognitive consonance either by changing our beliefs or behaviors, in all of these examples.
We can't explain the motives of all of them.
You save money and drive it.
Incentives help explain why behavior is not explained by other biological drives.
You just finished eating lunch in the caf eteria.
As you walk through the student center building, you can smell the distinctive aroma of popcorn because you are full and no longer hungry.
You decide to buy a bag.
According to drive-reduction theories, our biological drives push us towards our goals.
The larger or more powerful the incentive, the stronger the pull, according to incentive theories.
Satisfying basic survival needs such as hunger and thirst are some of the strongest motives.
Before safety needs can be satisfied, there are five needs to be met.
Safety needs are satisfied by a stable job, insurance, and financial reserves.
There are a few people who leave space between each other.
We all want to become the very best car.
Only a small number of people achieve self-actualization because of our struggle to satisfy needs that are lower in the hierarchy.
You may want to be the best office manager, but the pressures to conform to company procedures and your desire to do activities that are more recognized and compensated may limit your abilities to develop yourself.
Before an individual can focus on needs at the next higher level, needs must be satisfied.
Pearson Education, inc., Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, printed of worth and competence, self and electronically reproduced by permission of esteem and respect of others.
We might think that prisoners in nazi concentration camps would be motivated by their survival needs based on Maslow's hierarchy of needs.
When we are forced to confront lower-level needs again, our growth as individuals affects how we behave.
Many prisoners in Nazi concentration camps gave their lives for others, even though they were only concerned with survival.
Critics note that not everyone goes through the hierarchy.
Biological theories of motivation focus on the importance of achieving a psychological state in which one's thoughts of biological processes determine motivation.
He will double the payments on the car loan to make it easier to pay it off.
Birds build their homes in the spring.
You stay up late to watch a movie.
You only have $100 left in your paycheck.
Pay your rent.
Purchase a new pair of jeans.
He likes sports cars but they are expensive so he buys a family car.
We have focused on a theoretical overview of motivated behavior up to this point.
The theories try to give insight into all the motivation behind the behavior.
Specific motives and the big picture of theoretical overviews are what psychologists are interested in.
There are three specific motives: hunger, sex, and achievement.
Drive theories of motivation think that hunger is a need that pushes us to do certain things in order to survive.
The attractive properties of the food we plan to eat are stressed by incentive theories.
According to incentive theories, we live to eat.
There are still questions about hunger that need to be answered regardless of which motivational theory you agree with.
Blood sugar is an important hunger signal according to an early explanation for hunger.
When the cells of the body are able to use it, hunger is low.
Hunger increases as the blood sugar supply decreases.
The amount of stored fat serves as a hunger signal.
A hunger signal is sent to the brain when a person's weight falls.
No signal is sent when fat cells are full.
The brain structure that receives hunger signals is the hypothalamus.
The surgical removal of two areas of the hypothalamus in rats yielded different results.
Lesions in the hypo thalamus reduced food intake.
The removal of the ventromedial does not create an animal that will be able to eat until it dies.
The animals become quite obese, but their weight eventually goes back to normal.
The parts of the hypothalamus that are important in deferring eating behavior are part of a very complex system.
A bundle of nerve fibers that passes close to the hypothalamus is important in regulating hunger and how much sugar is burned.
The regulation of hunger and body fat is more complex than was thought.
Ameri had a major problem obtaining sufficient amounts of vitamins and minerals.
There are problems with the food we consume.
The United States has a high burden of preventable illnesses and premature deaths.
The surgeon general of the United States.
300,000 deaths per year are attributable to overweight and obese people, and the risk of death increases with increasing weight.
Being overweight or obese is associated with several types of cancer.
The study found that overweight and obese people were more likely to die from cancer than people of normal weight.
According to the National Center for Health Statistics, overweight and obese people are implicated in 4 of the top 10 causes of death in the United States.
The cost of overweight and obese people in the United States in 2000 is estimated.
Chapter SeVeN cost $117 billion in medical expenses and lost productivity.
There are more than 1.5 billion overweight people worldwide, and at least 300 million of them are obese.
An estimated 43 million children under the age of 5 are overweight.
They didn't know where the next meal was coming from.
It required a lot of physical energy to get food.
Those who ate as many calories as possible were favored by evolution because they had the energy to survive and pass on their genes to the next generation.
But times have changed.
James Hill is a nutrition researcher at the University of Colorado.
Food is always available.
We have 3,800 calories available per person per day in the United States, yet we need Supersizing.
We increased our daily intake of calo by 500 per day between 1984 and 2000.
We tend to eat out more often and much more for a wide variety of products.
While we are consuming more calories, we are consuming less.
According to the CDC, about 34% of adults in the United States larger today than in 1894 engage in less than 30 minutes of exercise on a daily basis.
Excess calories that are not burned can turn into pounds.
Most people wonder how their weight compares with other people.
Before reading further, write down your answer.
There is a ratio of weight to height.
The number represents your height and weight without regard to gender.
Increased risks for hypertension, cardiovascular disease, Type II diabetes, and sleep apnea are associated with elevated body mass index.
Body weight alone is not a good predictor of disease risk.
Competitive athletes and body builders with large amounts of muscle tissue tend to have a high body mass index, which is not a good measure for everyone.
Their disease risk is overstated by their body mass index.
Women who are pregnant or lactating, children, and frail and sedentary individuals should not use the body mass index.
The cross section of your height and weight can be found on Table 7-1.
Although the exact cutoffs thattrigger recommendations to lose weight are still debated, the NHLBI guidelines are: overweight, 25-29.9; obese, 30 or greater.
There is a lot of evidence to support such statements.
A survey shows that 16% of children and adolescents are overweight.
When identical adult twins are raised apart, there are high correlations between their weights.
The evidence shows that the influence of genetics on weight is significant no matter how we measure it.
The risk of being overweight in the family is clear.
If one or both of the adolescents is overweight or obese, the risk of becoming overweight or obese increases to 80%.
Families of extremely obese individuals have a higher risk of being obese.
It seems that heredity is involved in what we weigh.
The amount of body fat varies from person to person.
20% to 25% of body weight is fat in women and 15% to 18% in men.
Obese people have more fat cells than normal-weight people.
Under unusual circumstances, the number of fat cells in our body does not change, even though we are adults.
When cells swell to hold more fat, they don't need much energy to maintain themselves.
The majority of the body's energy needs are represented by BMR.
Males tend to have more muscle and less fat than females.
Fat uses less energy than muscle.
We lose muscle mass as we get older.
Extra pounds can be added each year after age 35.
We should consider social and cultural factors if we want to fully understand why we are obese.
Once fat cells have expanded, they are easy to maintain.
Women who are obese are related to social class.
42% of women living in poverty are obese.
It is now known that most people who are obese are not low income, a shift from previous trends that showed obe sity to be most common in low-income populations.
Culture is thought to be a factor in the high rates of obesity in different countries.
In China, Japan, and certain African countries, the rates of Obesity are less than 5%.
The importance of social networks has been found in research.
Researchers looked at whether one person's weight gain influenced another person's.
Social networks had effects on individual scores.
Our culture wants books, drugs, and programs to make us fit, healthier, and slimmer.
Conflicting guidance on what we should and should not consume is offered by the diet.
There is a high rate of dieting among children and adolescents, which seems to reflect unhappiness with one's body.
The body does not treat all calories the same.
A gram of carbohy drates has 4 calories, whereas a gram of fat has 9 calories.
The high-fat diet requires less calories for digestion than the high-carbohydrate diet.
It is dif ficult to remove fat from the body because few calories are needed to maintain it.
Losing water and cutting calories early on in a diet can lead to weight loss.
The drastic reduction in calories is unlikely to last, and the weight is likely to return.
You change your behaviors.
3 mph is based on the American Heart Association.
This adjust ment may reflect our evolutionary heritage as an attempt to conserve energy by reducing the rate at which calories are consumed by the body.
In the past a change like this would help people prepare for a famine.
It may become more difficult to lose weight.
Losing a pound of fat takes a long time.
Losing weight requires patience and lifestyle changes.
Do not be discouraged if you are having trouble losing weight.
You should be realistic about the amount of weight you can lose and the chances of keeping it off.
The two disorders we will focus on are potentially life threatening eating disorders.
People with this disorder deny their hunger due to an intense females fear of becoming fat or gaining weight.
"For them, food is an enemy--a of becoming fat leads to selfstarvation and weight loss threat to their sense of self, identity, and autonomy" (Hales, 2001, p. 258).
Their self accompanied by a strong belief is not caused by a physical disease.
By definition they maintain a that one is fat despite objective body weight that is less than 85% of their expected weight, often by exercising com evidence to the contrary.
It burns calories if you engage in physical activity.
Weight control requires lifestyle change and not a diet.
The percentage of calories derived from fat should be reduced.
It's a good idea to reduce the cues that make you want to eat.
Don't shop on an empty stomach and store food out of sight.
Positive physical and psychological benefits of weight loss can occur at levels above a proposed ideal weight.
Adding spices to reduced-fat meals will increase the effectiveness of diet without increasing calories.
Family members and friends are encouraged to join.
You can reduce your appetite by eating a piece of fruit.
Not all sugars are bad for us.
A lack of calcium in the bones can cause stressFractures that may occur while simply walking.
Cardiac arrest can be caused by altered levels of potassium and sodium.
Anoremia is associated with depression, low self-esteem, bulimia nervosa, and obsessive-compulsive disorder.
Their body image is distorted after they lose so much weight that their bones protrude.
5% of victims starve themselves to death.
Young women between the ages of 13 and 20 are most likely to have Anorexia nervosa.