13 -- Part 2: . Chapter Drills: Answers and Explanations
If two different species of animals prey on the same species in the same habitat, they are said to be in direct competition.
One predator in the population would not have enough resources if the population were small.
They might leave that area or switch to another food source in order to end the competition.
Two raptor birds that compete for mice or fish, hunting cats that compete for food, and two species of birds that compete for insects are some examples of competition.
Irrigation to increase water availability, fertilization to overcome a lack of minerals in the soil, or turning the natural biome into farmland are some of the examples of harvesting more natural resources.
We use medicines to kill parasites and eliminate competitors.
There are many correct answers to this question.
Smelting is a process that separates the desired material from the mined material.
It is accomplished by heating the molten element and ladling it off.
Cost-benefit analysis is the comparison of the benefit of an action against the costs of that action.
External costs are the costs that occur after someone purchases something.
The cost of gasoline is an external cost after you buy a car.
Marginal benefit is the tradeoff between how much is gained by buying forest land or doing other beneficial activity.
If you drive a car, pollutants you produce can cause acid rain that kills trees.
It is a negative externality.
Marginal costs are the costs of each step in a process.
The correct answer is (C).
The removal of all trees at the same time is called clear-cutting.
This is done in areas that support fast-growing trees.
A significant amount of salts on the soil's surface can make the land unusable for crops, which can be caused by moderate irrigation over a long period of time.
salinization is a condition.
Increasing the amount of land for cattle and other farm animals is one of the main reasons for cutting down rainforests.
All of the other options are associated with problems, but benefits humans.
In order to increase green space and control the growth of cities, the Greenbelts are used.
They are built at the edge of a city.
Quality of life can be increased for people living near them because they are not allowed to grow.
Satellite towns are sometimes built outside the city and connected by mass transportation.
Federal rangeland is managed by the Bureau of Land Management.
There is a limited amount of copper in the Earth.
It is notrenewable.
Choices A, B, and D are considered to be renewable because they will be available as long as humans use them in a sustainable manner.
In the Tragedy of the Commons, a common resource is used by many people and then depletes as these people don't regulate their consumption.
75 percent of the world's commercially usable fish are either overfished or being fished at their maximum sustainable yield according to some sources.
17 percent of the United States' total commercial energy use goes into food production when all aspects are considered.
It takes 10 units of fossil fuel energy to prepare and deliver food.
CITES regulates the international trade in plants and animals that are in danger of extinction.
This is the correct answer.
Choice only deals with species in the United States.
Another United States law deals with marine mammals.
The United States will deal with environmental issues according to Choice.
Pesticide resistance is the only answer that represents a problem caused by the use of pesticides.
Because pesticides have been used in large amounts, some pests have evolved to resist them.
National parks can only be used for camping, fishing, and boating.
Motor vehicles can only be used in designated areas.
The permitted uses of National Wildlife refuge land and acceptable uses of national forest lands are described in choice.
Water flowing through mines causes sulphur acid to form.
The conversion of sulfur-bearing minerals occurs through a combination of chemical reactions.
Most of the world's nations formed the WTO in 1995 to establish ground rules for international commerce.
If your responses are correct, use the checklists below.
There are many different ways that you could have answered the question.
The ocean water can migrate underground as the aquifer decreases.
Subsidence is caused by the withdrawal of water for domestic or industrial use.
Net energy yield is a comparison of the cost of transportation and the amount of useful energy derived from the fuel.
The net energy yield for electrical heating is less than the net energy ration for natural gas.
The net yield from gas is higher when compared to the costs of running a nuclear power plant because the costs of getting the gas to your home is very small.
The amount of light produced by a bulb is calculated by this question.
You know the amount of energy going into the bulb.
3 percent of 1.00 is not much.
The answer is D because it is light and not heat.
Methane and ethanol are created whenbacteria break down the plant.
Farmers produce methane from decomposing manure to heat their barns.
Methane is released from underground pits where the manure is placed.
The majority of hybrid engines are gasoline-electric.
The two engines work together.
The electric engine powers the car when it is driving slowly.
Leaving room lights on describes a waste of energy.
Most light bulbs have an energy efficiency rating.
We only get 5 units of useful light for every 100 units of energy.
The correct formula for this problem is 4.5 x 10 10.
It is much easier to use scientific notation here.
Any process that releases energy by burning material has high CO 2 emissions.
Coal, oil, diesel, and wood all produce CO 2 There is a moderate amount of CO 2 generated by the reprocessing of uranium.
Wind turbine generation is the only non-combustion generation.
The cells are made from two different materials.
When the sun shines, the electrons are excited.
The electrons can flow and produce an electric current.
This current can be used to power devices if wires are placed in the correct positions.
The cost per kilowatt hour of the cells is high, but they are useful for applications in which there is no other source of electricity.
The amount of time it takes for half of a sample to disappear is called radioactive half-life.
There are three half-lives in this question, the first is 2, the second is 1 and the third is 0.25.
Each half-life lasts 20 years.
microwaves do not have an off switch They draw power to stay in "instant on" mode.
Coal, oil, and natural gas are burned to generate heat.
The steam spins a turbine that in turn spins a generator after the heat turns water to steam.
The burning of coal causes air pollution in the form of sulfur and nitrogen oxides, which combine with atmospheric water to form acid rain.
Acid rain harms forests and lakes.
It is made from high- strength steel and other materials.
The fuel rods are inside the core.
The fuel rods are made of enriched U-235.
In the reactor, steam is converted into heat in a chain reaction.
The heat generated by the chain reaction is removed by the coolant.
Some of the heat is used to turn water into steam.
In most reactors, the heat produced in the core does not come in contact with the water that is vaporized; instead a device called a heat exchanger takes heat from the core and transfers it to water.
Some of the materials are stored in steel drums that have walls made of lead and concrete.
The United States is studying the possibility of opening a deep underground storage facility.
There are low-level radioactive materials in the landfills.
There is no release of heavy metals, no production of oxides of nitrogen or sulfur, and no production of particulates.
The processing of the fuel rods is where CO 2 is generated.
The hot turbine needs to be cooled by water from nearby oceans or rivers.
Allowing the turbine water to flow up a series of pipes inside the cooling towers is a solution to the problem.
As cool air enters the bottom of the tower, it rises and removes the heat from the water in the pipes.
The water is released.
Choices B, C, and D all contribute to the pollution of the water.
If the exhaust is converted into a secondary pollutant, choice can contribute.
The burning of coal to generate electricity and provide heat to homes causes gray-air smog.
China uses a lot of coal.
People in some countries don't use much coal to heat their homes, and the other cities have effective controls on their generation stations.
Garbage is isolated in sanitary landfills.
These landfills have liners that hold back water.
The trash is covered with plastic and clay in the smallest area possible.
The methane generated as the trash breaks down is used for other purposes.
Eutrophication occurs when organic material is added to water.
The waste gives food to thebacteria, which use the oxygen for metabolism.
The lower the level of oxygen in the water, the less fish and other aquatic animals can eat.
There is little oxygen in a body of water.
The presence of fish in the water would mean it was not polluted.
The water is polluted if the indicator species are not present.
Each person in the United States produces about 725 kilograms of waste each year.
54 percent of the waste is put in a landfill, 34 percent is recycled, and 12 percent is burned.
The concentration of CO 2 in the atmosphere is increasing at a faster rate than any other gas.
The amount of CO 2 is expected to increase rapidly in the next 20 years.
Water vapor has remained consistent for hundreds of years.
Solids are removed by a series of screens.
The water is passed into tanks.
They remove 97 percent of the waste.
Chlorine is added to kill germs.
Secondary pollutants are called PANs.
They are made from the reaction of oxygen and nitrogen dioxide.
Primary pollutants are produced from burning fossil fuels.
The repository was being built in Nevada.
The storage of radioactive material was delayed by President Obama and President Trump's budget included money to restart the licensing process.
The result is HNO 3 when nitrogen oxides react with water.
The use of lights and machines that warm the surrounding air is one of the reasons why urban heat islands are created.
This can cause the formation of clouds and trap pollution near the Earth.
Tobacco smoke and radon are two of the most common indoor air pollutants in developed countries.
Both are leading causes of lung cancer.
Carbon monoxide, VOCs, and mold spores are important indoor air pollutants in developed countries, but soot from fuel is more common in developing countries.
The components of acid rain are CO 2 and methane.
Due to the ozone depletion that has occurred in recent times, the allowance of more UV radiation through to Earth's surface causes damage to primary producers such as phytoplankton.
This effect decreases the number of crops and fish in the food chain.
Eye cataracts, skin cancers, and weakened immune systems are some of the effects on human health.
The dose that causes the death of the organisms is recorded in a dose-response analysis.
It takes 50 percent of the test animals to be killed by the toxin.
50 percent of the test organisms show a negative effect from the toxin if only the negative health effects are considered.
Any negative effect occurs at the threshold dose.
Remember that you must write all of your answers in a paragraph in order to check your answers.
Burning fossil fuels causes all of these pollutants.
Secondary pollutants are formed in the atmosphere.
The products above are produced when primary pollutants combine with water vapor and sunlight energy.
Coal is the dominant fossil fuel in some areas.
It causes chronic diseases.
CO can cause dizziness and nausea.
Fetal development can be retarded by it.
NO 2 and SO 2 cause breathing problems and increase susceptibility to disease.
The Montreal Protocol was signed in 1987 by 36 nations to limit the use of chlorofluorocarbons.
Between 1989 and 2000 the pact stated that they had to be reduced by 35 percent.
The agreement was further refined in 1992.
The intent of HMTA was to define what a hazardous material was and set rules for hazmat shipment.
The Marine Mammal Protection Act was established in 1972 and protects marine mammals in the world's oceans.
An environmental impact statement is required for large federal projects.
The 1969 National Environmental Policy Act requires this.
Silent Spring was published in 1962.
She describes the problems associated with the use of pesticides.
She talks about how pesticides are affecting bird populations.
The way people thought about the impact of pesticides was changed by the book and her advocacy.
The most polluted power plants in 21 states were allowed by the CAA to buy and sell pollution rights.
The amount of pollution each plant could produce was regulated.
If the plant produces an amount under the regulated level, it gets a "credit," which can be kept or sold to another plant that is producing pollution over the limit of permitted emissions.
Environmental economics studies the impact of the goods and services economy on environmental quality and ecological integrity.
It takes into account the economic basis for pollution problems.
Monetary and economic considerations are always included in discussions of environmental issues.
The act was passed to protect species that are in danger of extinction.
The act allows federal agencies to purchase land to protect habitats.
The belief that we are one of many species on the planet and that we interact with all species is one of the viewpoints.
If we harm the planet, we harm ourselves.
The other options include "planet management" viewpoints.
The long-term utilization of resources is described in (C).
Resources could be used up more quickly if the other options are used.
A cap-and-trade policy limits carbon dioxide in the atmosphere by implementing caps and offering incentives for reducing emissions.
WWF is not associated with any branch of government.
The limits on pollutants that people or the environment may be exposed to are set by the NAAQS.
People near the plant are concerned about carbon monoxide, ozone, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide.
Lead, mercury, and radionuclides are examples.
Negative impacts include more air pollution, more water pollution, the need to build infrastructure to support the plant, and the loss of the natural beauty of the area.
The act allows for the protection of species that are in danger.
It is possible that the plant wouldn't be built in order to conserve the environment in which it lives.
Sulfur reductions can be achieved by burning low-sulfur coal or fluidized-bed coal.
The sulfur and nitrogen oxides can be removed by mixing coal and limestone and burning it.
It is possible to wash the coal with water and remove sulfur particles.