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6 -- Part 2: The World of Rome
The Romans built roads after they conquered an area like the Persians did.
Roman roads lead from the capital tooutlying areas.
The stone bridges the Ro mans built over Italy's many rivers were marvels of engineering.
The Romans shared full Roman citizenship with many of their oldest allies, including the inhabitants of the cities of Latium.
The Romans are wearing helmets, with the soldier at the far right wearing iron or bronze chain mail, a technology they had only recently picked up from the Germans.
The allies were subject to Roman taxes and had to serve in the military.
The shape of politics was determined by the social divisions of the early republic.
Rome had few of the patricians' the patricians in wealth, and most of the plebeians were poor artisans, smal farmers and landless.
The senate advised the consuls and other officials about the earlier council of advisers to the king.
The senate provided stability because the same senators sat year after year.
Legislation could not be passed by the senate.
The advice came to have the force of law because of the senate's prestige.
Relations between Rome and other powers were handled by the senate.
The positions of the primary executives in the republic were initially open to patrician men.
The army, state busi ness, and financial affairs were supervised by the consuls.
Praetors acted in the place of the consuls when they were away from Rome.
The adminstration of justice was the focus of the praetors.
The Romans divided their lands in the Mediterranean into provinces governed by ex-consuls and ex-praetors.
The public treasury, register citizens, and supervise the city of Rome were all worked on by other officials.
The development of law was a lasting achievement of the Romans.
In the ius gentium, all sides were treated the same.
Natural law is made up of rules that govern human behavior that come from applying reason rather than traditions, and so applies to all societies.
The Struggle of the Orders was caused by inequality between patricians and plebeians.
The plebeians wanted to increase their power by taking advantage of the fact that Rome's survival depended on its army.
Tradition says that in 494 b.c.e.
The general strike worked and the patricians made important concessions.
They owed patricians and plebeians something.
The tribunes, the elected officials of the plebeians, could bring grievances to the senate for resolution and veto the decisions of the consuls.
In Archaic age Greece, po litical rights were expanded because of military needs for foot soldiers.
The law was the primary target.
Only the patricians could argue cases in court.
They used the law for their own benefit a lot.
The law should be codified and published.
The Laws of the Twelve Tables were codified and published by the patricians.
Legal procedures were made public so that people could argue in court.
The Licinian-Sextian laws gave wealthy people access to all the offices of Rome, including the right to hold one of the two consulships.
They could advise on policy once they held the consulship.
This victory did not end the Struggle of the Orders.
That happened in the year 287 b.c.e.
A new elite of wealthy people was established during the Roman expansion in Italy.
The Romans turned their attention to other countries.
In a series of wars they conquered lands all around the Mediterranean, creating an overseas empire that brought them unheard of power and wealth.
Many Romans were influenced by the culture of Greece and became more cosmopolitan and comfortable.
In the wake of the wars, there were opportunities for ambitious generals who wanted to rule Rome like an em pire.
Julius Caesar briefly quelled the civil war.
Augustus, his grandnephew, restored peace and order to Rome.
When the Romans reached southern Italy, they embarked upon a series of wars that left them as the rulers of the Mediterranean world.
Alexander the Great had a grand strategy to conquer the world.
They responded to the situations that came up.
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